Effect of constrained growth on defect structures in microgravity grown CdZnTe boules
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
In a microgravity environment obtainable in an orbiting space shuttle, it is possible to virtually eliminate gravity related effects such as buoyancy driven convection and hydrostatic forces thus providing an ideal environment for diffusion-controlled, containerless crystal growth processes. Under such conditions, it is possible to investigate the effects of gravity independent growth parameters on crystal growth. Studies of CdZnTe boules grown on space shuttle mission USML-1 revealed that regions of the boules grown with wall contact were associated with a higher defect density than regions grown with partial or no wall contact. Defect densities in certain regions grown without wall contact were as low as 5 × 102/cm2 to 1.2 × 103/cm2. More detailed studies on the effects of wall contact were sought in the USML-2 mission. Two CdZnTe boules (GCRC-1 and GCRC-2) were grown by the seeded Bridgman-Stockbarger method. Boule GCRC-1 was grown under constrained conditions to force full wall contact while boule GCRC-2 had a tapered geometry designed to minimize wall contact. Defect distributions in the boules were investigated by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography. The sample GCRC-1 was characterized by the presence of large inhomogeneous strains, numerous grains and twins, all of which are caused by effects related to wall contact. On the other hand, a part of the boule GCRC-2 that grew free from wall contact revealed minimum surface strains, the absence of twins and a very high structural uniformity. Results clearly verify that ampoule wall contact plays an important role in determining the incidence of crystal imperfections.
- B.V. Dutt, S. Mahajan, R.J. Roedel, G.P. Schwartz, D.C. Miller and L. Derick, J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 1573 (1981). CrossRef
- A.W. Vere, S. Cole and D.J. Williams, J. Electron. Mater. 12, 551 (1983).
- E.Y. Gutmanas and P. Haasen, Phys. Status. Solidi. A 63, 63 (1981). CrossRef
- A.F. Witt, H.C. Gatos, M. Lichtensteiger, M.C. Lavine and C.J. Herman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 276 (1975). CrossRef
- S. Sen, W.H. Konkel, S.J. Tighe, L.G. Bland, S.R. Sharma and R.E. Taylor, J. Cryst. Growth 86, 111 (1988). CrossRef
- K.Y. Lay, D. Nichols, S. McDevitt, B.E. Dean and C.J. Johnson, J. Cryst. Growth 86, 118 (1988). CrossRef
- I. Hahnert, M. Muhlberg, H. Berger and Ch. Genzel, J. Cryst. Growth 142, 310 (1994). CrossRef
- D.T.J. Hurle, Materials Science in Space, ed. B. Feurbacher, H. Hamacher and R.J. Naumann, (Germany: Springer Verlag, 1986), p. 379.
- T. Duffar, I. Paret-Harter and P. Dusserre, J. Cryst. Growth 100, 171 (1990). CrossRef
- R.S. Rai, S. Mahajan, S. McDevitt and C.J. Johnson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 1892 (1991). CrossRef
- M. Dudley, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 307, (Pittsburgh, PA: Mater. Res. Soc., 1993), p. 213.
- M. Dudley, Encyclopedia of Advanced Materials 4, (Pergamon, 1994), p. 2950.
- M. Dudley, Encyclopedia of Applied Physics 21, (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 1997), p. 533.
- D.J. Larson Jr., J.I.D. Alexander, D. Gillies, F.M. Carlson, J. Wu and D. Black, NASA Conference Publications 3272, (Huntsville, AL: NASA, 1993), p. 129.
- D.J. Larson Jr., NASA Conference Publication 3342, (Huntsville, AL: NASA, 1996), p. 337.
- R. Srinivas, G. Hambright, M. Ainsworth, M. Fiske and D. Schaefer, AIAA 94-0334 (1994).
- T. Duffar, P. Boiton, P. Dusserre and J. Abadie, J. Cryst. Growth 179, 397 (1997). CrossRef
- A.F. Witt, H.C. Gatos, M. Lichtensteiger and C.J. Herman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1832 (1978). CrossRef
- W. R. Wilcox and L.L. Regel, Intl. J. Microgravity Sci. Technol. VIII (1), 56 (1995).
- H. Chung, B. Raghothamachar, J. Wu, M. Dudley, D.J. Larson, Jr. and D.C. Gillies, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 378, (Pittsburgh, PA: Mater. Res. Soc., 1995), p. 41.
- H. Chung, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley and D.J. Larson, Jr., SPIE 2809, 45 (1996). CrossRef
- S. Tohno and A. Katsui, J. Cryst. Growth 74, 362 (1986). CrossRef
- W. Zhou, M. Dudley, J. Wu, C.H. Su, M.P. Volz, D.C. Gillies, F.R. Szofran and S.L. Lehoczky, Mater. Sci. & Eng. B 27, 143 (1994). CrossRef
- D.J. Larson, Jr., R.P. Silberstein, D. DiMarzio, F.C. Carlson, D. Gillies, G. Long, M. Dudley and J. Wu, Semiconductor Sci. & Tech. 8, 911 (1993). CrossRef
- W. Rosch and F. Carlson, J. Cryst. Growth 109, 75 (1991). CrossRef
- D.J. Larson, Jr., L.G. Casagrande, D. Di Marzio, A. Levy, F.M. Carlson, T. Lee, D. Black, J. Wu and M. Dudley, SPIE 2228, 11 (1994). CrossRef
- C. Parfeniuk, F. Weinberg, I.V. Samarasekera, C. Schevzov and L. Li, J. Cryst. Growth 119, 261 (1992). CrossRef
- S. McDevitt, B.E. Dean, D.G. Ryding, F.J. Scheltens and S. Mahajan, Mater. Lett. 4, 451 (1986). CrossRef
- D.J. Williams and A.W. Vere, J. Cryst. Growth 83, 341 (1987). CrossRef
- Effect of constrained growth on defect structures in microgravity grown CdZnTe boules
Journal of Electronic Materials
Volume 27, Issue 6 , pp 556-563
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Bridgman-Stockbarger crystal growth
- wall contact
- x-ray topography
- Industry Sectors