Zhang, W., Yi, L., Tu, J. et al. Journal of Elec Materi (2005) 34: 1307. doi:10.1007/s11664-005-0254-7
Titanium films prepared by standard direct-current (DC) magnetron physical vapor deposition (PVD) and ionized metal plasma PVD (I-PVD), with Al (0.5wt.%Cu) films on them, were studied. The surface roughness, reflectivity, and crystalline texture of Ti on SiO2/Si and Al on TiN/Ti/SiO2/Si were investigated with the same thickness of Al, TiN, and Ti. The surface roughness of Al films with Ti/TiN underlayers was found to be capable of monitoring Al(111) texture. So, the reflectivity of Al/TiN/Ti film stack can be used as a quick monitor for the electromigration (EM) lifetime.