The Effect of Particle Size on the Oxidation Resistance of a Nanoceria-Coated 304 Stainless Steel
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- Lopez, H.F. & Zhang, H. Metall and Mat Trans A (2014) 45: 2297. doi:10.1007/s11661-013-2159-z
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In this work, the oxidation resistance of 304 stainless steel (SS) in the uncoated and nanoceria-coated conditions was investigated at 1073 K and 1273 K (800 °C and 1000 °C) under dry air conditions. It was found that nanoceria coatings with average particle sizes of 10 nm were effective enough to fully protect the 304 SS from oxidation. In particular, when the average nanoceria particle size in the coating was less than 5 nm, the coatings were highly efficient in hindering the oxidation susceptibility of the 304 SS. Improvements in the oxidation resistance of up to two orders of magnitude were experimentally found in this work. Finite elements were used in solving Fick’s Second Law using the Crank–Nicholson method in order to elucidate the active oxidation mechanisms in the bare and nanoceria-coated 304 SS. Oxygen penetration profiles across the scale were predicted suggesting that in the absence of a nanoceria coating, the oxygen concentration at a given scale depth is three times as high as in the nanoceria-coated samples. Moreover, kinetic simulations for scale growth through an exponential term containing a factor λ were satisfactory in predicting the experimental outcome on mass gain vs time. Ostwald-Ripening mechanisms were considered to be active during the dissolution of nanoceria particles. It was found that when average particle sizes fall below 5 nm in size, they tend to dissolve immediately, but the dissolution times become exceedingly long when the particle sizes increase above 10 nm.