, Volume 35, Issue 9, pp 2547-2555

Dislocation mechanics-based constitutive equations

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Abstract

A review of constitutive models based on the mechanics of dislocation motion is presented, with focus on the models of Zerilli and Armstrong and the critical influence of Armstrong on their development. The models were intended to be as simple as possible while still reproducing the behavior of real metals. The key feature of these models is their basis in the thermal activation theory propounded by Eyring in the 1930’s. The motion of dislocations is governed by thermal activation over potential barriers produced by obstacles, which may be the crystal lattice itself or other dislocations or defects. Typically, in bcc metals, the dislocation-lattice interaction is predominant, while in fcc metals, the dislocation-dislocation interaction is the most significant. When the dislocation-lattice interaction is predominant, the yield stress is temperature and strain rate sensitive, with essentially athermal strain hardening. When the dislocation-dislocation interaction is predominant, the yield stress is athermal, with a large temperature and rate sensitive strain hardening. In both cases, a significant part of the athermal stress is accounted for by grain size effects, and, in some materials, by the effects of deformation twinning. In addition, some simple strain hardening models are described, starting from a differential equation describing creation and annihilation of mobile dislocations. Finally, an application of thermal activation theory to polymeric materials is described.

This article is based on a presentation given in the symposium “Dynamic Deformation: Constitutive Modeling, Grain Size, and Other Effects: In Honor of Prof. Ronald W. Armstrong,” March 2–6, 2003, at the 2003 TMS/ASM Annual Meeting, San Diego, California, under the auspices of the TMS/ASM Joint Mechanical Behavior of Materials Committee.