Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its correlates: results of a community-based study conducted in Karachi, Pakistan
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Of the 305 premenopausal females in a cross-sectional study in randomly selected communities of Karachi, Pakistan, 90.1 % showed to be vitamin D deficient. Age, town of residence, and housing structure were significant predictors of vitamin D levels. Measures to address D deficiency and its associated long latency effects are urgently needed.
This study aims to find out the prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D deficiency in community-dwelling premenopausal females in Karachi.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected communities downtown (Saddar) and suburbs (Gulshan and Malir Town) in Karachi, Pakistan. Information related to sociodemographics (age, education, employment, and household income), housing structure, sunlight exposure, and skin pigmentation as well as dietary intake (using a food frequency questionnaire) was collected. Serum vitamins D3 levels were also measured. Mean and SD was computed for continuous variables and frequency and proportions were computed for categorical variables. Data were further analyzed by Chi-square test and ANOVA. Multiple linear regression analysis was done to find out determinants of vitamin D (VD) levels.
Total of 305 premenopausal females were recruited. Mean age, BMI, and waist circumference of the study participants was 31.97 ± 8 years, 25.06 ± 5.6 kg/m2, and 88.42 ± 13.3 cm, respectively. Majority of the females were vitamin D deficient (91.50 %) with mean vitamin D levels of 21.77 ± 21.66 nm/L. Mean vitamin D levels were significantly different among females residing in downtown and suburbs. High frequency of vitamin D deficiency was observed in females dwelling in downtown (Saddar). According to the results of multiple linear regression analysis, determinants of VD levels were age, town of residence, and housing structure.
High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is seen in females in the community of Karachi, Pakistan. Age, town of residence, and housing structure were the significant predictors of vitamin D levels. Measures to combat the issue of D deficiency and its associated long latency effects are urgently needed.
- Andersen R, Molgaard C, Skovgaard LT, Brot C, Cashman KD, Jakobsen J, Lamberg-Allardt C, Ovesen L (2008) Effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone and vitamin D status among Pakistani immigrants in Denmark: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled intervention study. Br J Nutr 100:197–207 CrossRef
- Holvik K, Meyer HE, Haug E, Brunvand L (2005) Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency in five immigrant groups living in Oslo, Norway: the Oslo Immigrant Health Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59:57–63 CrossRef
- Madar AA, Stene LC, Meyer HE (2009) Vitamin D status among immigrant mothers from Pakistan, Turkey and Somalia and their infants attending child health clinics in Norway. Br J Nutr 101:1052–1058 CrossRef
- Andersen R, Molgaard C, Skovgaard LT, Brot C, Cashman KD, Jakobsen J, Lamberg-Allardt C, Ovesen L (2008) Pakistani immigrant children and adults in Denmark have severely low vitamin D status. Eur J Clin Nutr 62:625–634 CrossRef
- Meyer HE, Falch JA, Sogaard AJ, Haug E (2004) Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism and the association with bone mineral density in persons with Pakistani and Norwegian background living in Oslo, Norway, The Oslo Health Study. Bone 35:412–417 CrossRef
- Mansoor S, Habib A, Ghani F, Fatmi Z, Badruddin S, Siddiqui I, Jabbar A (2010) Prevalence and significance of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among apparently healthy adults. Clin Biochem 43:1431–1435 CrossRef
- Zuberi LM, Habib A, Haque N, Jabbar A (2008) Vitamin D deficiency in ambulatory patients. J Pak Med Assoc 58:482–484
- Talat N, Perry S, Parsonnet J, Dawood G, Hussain R (2010) Vitamin d deficiency and tuberculosis progression. Emerg Infect Dis 16(5):853–855 CrossRef
- Holick MF, Tian XQ, Allen M (1995) Evolutionary importance for the membrane enhancement of the production of vitamin D3 in the skin of poikilothermic animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:3124–3126 CrossRef
- Bhutta ZA (2011) National Nutritional Survey, Pakistan.
- Nanan DJ (2002) The obesity pandemic—implications for Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 52:342–346
- Hovsepian S, Amini M, Aminorroaya A, Amini P, Iraj B (2011) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among adult population of Isfahan City, Iran. J Health Popul Nutr 29:149–155 CrossRef
- Hashemipour S, Larijani B, Adibi H, Javadi E, Sedaghat M, Pajouhi M, Soltani A, Shafaei A, Hamidi Z, Fard A, Hossein-Nezhad A, Booya F (2004) Vitamin D deficiency and causative factors in the population of Tehran. BMC Publ Health 4:38 CrossRef
- Hossain N, Khanani R, Hussain-Kanani F, Shah T, Arif S, Pal L (2011) High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Pakistani mothers and their newborns. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 112:229–233 CrossRef
- Hosseinpanah F, Pour SH, Heibatollahi M, Moghbel N, Asefzade S, Azizi F (2010) The effects of air pollution on vitamin D status in healthy women: a cross sectional study. BMC Publ Health 10:519 CrossRef
- Humayun Q, Iqbal R (2011) The impact of atmospheric pollution on vitamin D status. J Pakistan Med Assoc 61(2):197–198
- Fonseca V, Tongia R, el-Hazmi M, Abu-Aisha H (1984) Exposure to sunlight and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabian women. Postgrad Med J 60:589–591 CrossRef
- Hunter D, De Lange M, Snieder H, MacGregor AJ, Swaminathan R, Thakker RV, Spector TD (2001) Genetic contribution to bone metabolism, calcium excretion, and vitamin D and parathyroid hormone regulation. J Bone Miner Res 16:371–378 CrossRef
- Shea MK, Benjamin EJ, Dupuis J, Massaro JM, Jacques PF, D’Agostino RB Sr, Ordovas JM, O’Donnell CJ, Dawson-Hughes B, Vasan RS, Booth SL (2009) Genetic and non-genetic correlates of vitamins K and D. Eur J Clin Nutr 63:458–464 CrossRef
- Wang TJ, Zhang F, Richards JB, Kestenbaum B, van Meurs JB, Berry D, Kiel DP, Streeten EA, Ohlsson C, Koller DL, Peltonen L, Cooper JD, O’Reilly PF, Houston DK, Glazer NL, Vandenput L, Peacock M, Shi J, Rivadeneira F, McCarthy MI, Anneli P, de Boer IH, Mangino M, Kato B, Smyth DJ, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Burke GL, Goodarzi M, Cheung CL, Wolf M, Rice K, Goltzman D, Hidiroglou N, Ladouceur M, Wareham NJ, Hocking LJ, Hart D, Arden NK, Cooper C, Malik S, Fraser WD, Hartikainen AL, Zhai G, Macdonald HM, Forouhi NG, Loos RJ, Reid DM, Hakim A, Dennison E, Liu Y, Power C, Stevens HE, Jaana L, Vasan RS, Soranzo N, Bojunga J, Psaty BM, Lorentzon M, Foroud T, Harris TB, Hofman A, Jansson JO, Cauley JA, Uitterlinden AG, Gibson Q, Jarvelin MR, Karasik D, Siscovick DS, Econs MJ, Kritchevsky SB, Florez JC, Todd JA, Dupuis J, Hypponen E, Spector TD (2010) Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study. Lancet 376:180–188 CrossRef
- Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its correlates: results of a community-based study conducted in Karachi, Pakistan
Archives of Osteoporosis
Volume 7, Issue 1-2 , pp 275-282
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Vitamin D deficiency (VDD)
- Risk factors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Pathology and Microbiology and Medicine, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, Karachi, 74800, Pakistan
- 2. Department of Community Health Sciences and Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
- 3. Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan