Date: 18 Jun 2014

Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations in a Prospective Cohort Study of Older Americans

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND

The relative contributions of depression, cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND), and dementia to the risk of potentially preventable hospitalizations in older adults are not well understood.

OBJECTIVE(S)

To determine if depression, CIND, and/or dementia are each independently associated with hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) and rehospitalizations within 30 days after hospitalization for pneumonia, congestive heart failure (CHF), or myocardial infarction (MI).

DESIGN

Prospective cohort study.

PARTICIPANTS

Population-based sample of 7,031 Americans > 50 years old participating in the Health and Retirement Study (1998–2008).

MAIN MEASURES

The eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and/or International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) depression diagnoses were used to identify baseline depression. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status and/or ICD-9-CM dementia diagnoses were used to identify baseline CIND or dementia. Primary outcomes were time to hospitalization for an ACSC and presence of a hospitalization within 30 days after hospitalization for pneumonia, CHF, or MI.

KEY RESULTS

All five categories of baseline neuropsychiatric disorder status were independently associated with increased risk of hospitalization for an ACSC (depression alone: Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.33, 95 % Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 1.18, 1.52; CIND alone: HR: 1.25, 95%CI: 1.10, 1.41; dementia alone: HR: 1.32, 95%CI: 1.12, 1.55; comorbid depression and CIND: HR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.20, 1.69; comorbid depression and dementia: HR: 1.66, 95%CI: 1.38, 2.00). Depression (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.84), comorbid depression and CIND (OR: 1.98, 95%CI: 1.40, 2.81), or comorbid depression and dementia (OR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.06, 2.35) were independently associated with increased odds of rehospitalization within 30 days after hospitalization for pneumonia, CHF, or MI.

CONCLUSIONS

Depression, CIND, and dementia are each independently associated with potentially preventable hospitalizations in older Americans. Older adults with comorbid depression and cognitive impairment represent a particularly at-risk group that could benefit from targeted interventions.

Dr. Davydow has had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. The funding organization had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
A comment to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-014-2930-x.