Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Risk Status, Clinic, and Community
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Although the idea of preventing type 2 diabetes has been articulated since the discovery of insulin, only in the past decade have clinical trials demonstrated that diabetes can be prevented or delayed. These trials found lifestyle intervention reduces diabetes incidence by over 50% and is more efficacious than metformin. Evidence from prevention trials comes from persons with “pre-diabetes” in which blood glucose levels are elevated but not yet in the diabetes range. In normoglycemic persons, lifestyle or drug intervention has little impact on diabetes incidence. Prevention programs are often conducted outside the clinical sector where participants’ glycemic status is usually unknown; these programs may include many normoglycemic participants, which greatly reduces cost-effectiveness. An economically sustainable system for diabetes prevention will require effective partnerships among the clinical sector, community-based lifestyle programs, and third-party payers to ensure that limited resources for diabetes prevention are focused on persons at high risk of diabetes.
- Joslin EP. The prevention of diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 1921;76:79–84.
- Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Ämalainen H, Lanne-Parikka P, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1343–50. CrossRef
- Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. New Engl J Med. 2002;346:393–403. CrossRef
- Florez JC, Jablonski KA, Bayley N, Pollin TI, de Bakker PI, Shuldiner AR, et al. TCF7L2 polymorphisms and progression to diabetes in the diabetes prevention program. New Engl J Med. 2006;355:241–50. CrossRef
- Moore AF, Jablonski KA, Mason CC, McAteer JB, Arakaki RF, Goldstein BJ, et al. The Association of ENPP1 K121Q with diabetes incidence is abolished by lifestyle modification in the diabetes prevention program. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Nov 18. [Epub ahead of print]
- The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Impact of intensive lifestyle and metformin therapy on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the diabetes prevention program. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:888–94. CrossRef
- Crandall JP, Knowler WC, Kahn SE, Marrero D, Florez JC, Bray GA, et al. The prevention of type 2 diabetes. Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2008;4:382–93. CrossRef
- American Diabetes Association, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(Suppl 1):S47–54.
- Jackson L. Translating the diabetes prevention program into practice: a review of community interventions. Diabetes Educ. 2009;35:309. doi:10.1177/0145721708330153. CrossRef
- Amundson HA, Butcher MK, Gohdes D, Hall TO, et al. Translating the diabetes prevention program into practice in the general community: findings from the montana cardiovascular disease and diabetes prevention programs. Diabetes Educ. 2009;35:209. doi:10.1177/0145721709333269. CrossRef
- McTigue KM, Conroy MB, Bigi L, Murphy C, McNeil M. Weight loss through living well: Translating an effective lifestyle intervention into clinical practice. Diabetes Educ. 2009;35:199. doi:10.1177/0145721709332815. CrossRef
- American Diabetes Association. Screening for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(Suppl. 1):S11–4.
- World Health Organization: Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications: Report of a WHO consultation. Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Geneva, World Health Org., 1999 (WHO/NCD/NCS/99.2).
- Guangwei Li, Zhang P, Wang J, Gregg EW, Yang W, Gong Q, et al. The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 20-year follow-up study. Lancet. 2008;371:1783–89. CrossRef
- Lindström J, Ilanne-Parikka P, Peltonen M, Aunola S, Eriksson JG, Hemio K, et al. Sustained reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: follow-up of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lancet. 2006;368:1673–79. CrossRef
- Nichols GA, Hillier TA, Brown JB. Normal fasting plasma glucose and risk of type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Am J Med. 2008;121:519–24. CrossRef
- de Vegt F, Dekker JM, Jager A, Hienkens E, Stehouwer CDA, Nijpels G, et al. Relation of impaired fasting and postload glucose with incident type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population: the Hoorn study. JAMA. 2001;285:2109–13. CrossRef
- Santaguida PL, Balion C, Hunt D, Morrison K, Gerstein H, Raina P, et al. Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment of Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 128. (Prepared by McMaster University Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290–02–0020). AHRQ Pub. No 05-E026–2. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. September 2005.
- Cowie CC, Rust KF, Ford ES, Eberhardt MS, Byrd-Hold DD, Chaoyang LI, et al. Full accounting of diabetes and prediabetes in the US population, 1988–1994 and 2005–2006. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:287–94. CrossRef
- Smith GD, Bracha Y, Svendsen KH, Neaton JD, Haffner SM, Kuller LH. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in the randomized multiple risk factor intervention trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:313–22.
- Torgerson JS, Hauptman J, Boldrin MN, Sjostrom L. Xenical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:155–61. CrossRef
- Richelsen B, Tonstad S, Rössner S, Toubro S, Niskanen L, Madsbad S, et al. Effect of Orlistat on weight regain and cardiovascular risk factors following a very-low-energy diet in abdominally obese patients: a 3-year randomized, placebo-controlled study. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:27–32. CrossRef
- Seidel MC, Powell RO, Zgibor JC, Siminerio LM, Platt GA. Translating the diabetes prevention program into an urban medically underserved community. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:684–9. CrossRef
- Karelis AD, Messier V, Brochu M, Rabasa-Lhoret R. Metabolically healthy but obese women: effect of an energy-restricted diet. Diabetologia. 2008. doi:10.1007/s00125-008-1038-4.
- Cohen JT, Neumann PJ, Weinstein MC. Does preventive care save money? Health economics and the presidential candidates. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:661–3. CrossRef
- Herman WH, Hoerger TJ, Brandle M, Hicks K, Sorensen S, Zhang P, et al. The cost-effectiveness of lifestyle modification or metformin in preventing type 2 diabetes in adults with impaired glucose tolerance. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:323–32.
- Eddy DM, Schlessinger L, Kahn R. Clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of strategies for managing people at high risk for diabetes. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:251–64.
- Ealovega MW, Tabaei BP, Brandle M, Burke R, Herman WH. Opportunistic screening for diabetes in routine clinical practice. Diab Care. 2004;27:9–12. CrossRef
- Ackermann RT, Finch EA, Brizendine E, Zhou H, Marrero DG. Translating the diabetes prevention program into the community: the DEPLOY pilot study. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35(4):357–63. CrossRef
- Heikes KE, Eddy DM, Arondekar B, Schlessinger L. Diabetes risk calculator: a simple tool for detecting undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1040–5. CrossRef
- Brug J. Determinants of healthy eating: motivation, abilities and environmental opportunities. Family Practice 2008. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmn063.
- Faith MS, Fontaine KR, Baskin ML, Allison DB. Toward the reduction of population obesity: macrolevel environmental approaches to the problems of food, eating, and obesity. Psychol Bull. 2007;33:205–26. CrossRef
- Rahman M, Simmons RK, Harding AH, Wareham NJ, Griffin SJ. A simple risk score identifies individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study. Fam Pract. 2008;25:191–6. CrossRef
- Kahn HS, Cheng YJ, Thompson TJ, Imperatore G, Gregg EW. Two risk-scoring systems for predicting incident diabetes mellitus in US adults age 45 to 64 years. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150:741–51.
- The International Expert Committee. International expert committee report on the role of the A1C assay in the diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1327–44. CrossRef
- Finnish Diabetes Association. Prevention of T2D, FIN-D2D http://www.diabetes.fi/sivu.php?artikkeli_id=1726. Accessed September 18, 2009.
- Development and Implementation of a European Guideline and Training Standards for Diabetes Prevention (IMAGE). http://www.image-project.eu/Default.aspx?id=1. Accessed September 18, 2009.
- The National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland. EU Project DE-PLAN. http://www.ktl.fi/portal/english/research__people___programs/health_promotion_and_chronic_disease_prevention/projects/eu_project_de-plan/ Accessed September 18, 2009.
- Ackermann RT, Marrero DG. Adapting the diabetes prevention program lifestyle intervention for delivery in the community: the YMCA model. Diabetes Educ. 2007;33:69–78. CrossRef
- Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Risk Status, Clinic, and Community
Journal of General Internal Medicine
Volume 25, Issue 2 , pp 154-157
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- glycemic status
- Industry Sectors