Journal of General Internal Medicine

, 24:189

Validity/Reliability of PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 Depression Scales Among Adults Living with HIV/AIDS in Western Kenya


    • Department of MedicineIndiana University School of Medicine
  • Enbal Shacham
    • Department of Psychiatry, School of MedicineWashington University
  • Michael Reece
    • Department of Applied Health ScienceIndiana University
  • Kurt Kroenke
    • Regenstrief Institute for Health Care and Department of MedicineIndiana University
  • Willis Owino Ong’or
    • School of MedicineMoi University
  • Otieno Omollo
    • School of MedicineMoi University
  • Violet Naanyu Yebei
    • Department of SociologyIndiana University
    • School of MedicineMoi University
  • Claris Ojwang
    • AMPATH Support NetworkMoi University
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11606-008-0846-z

Cite this article as:
Monahan, P.O., Shacham, E., Reece, M. et al. J GEN INTERN MED (2009) 24: 189. doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0846-z



Depression greatly burdens sub-Saharan Africa, especially populations living with HIV/AIDS, for whom few validated depression scales exist. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a brief dual-purpose instrument yielding DSM-IV diagnoses and severity, and PHQ-2, an ultra-brief screening tool, offer advantages in resource-constrained settings.


To assess the validity/reliability of PHQ-9 and PHQ-2.


Observational, two occasions 7 days apart.


A total of 347 patients attending psychosocial support groups.


Demographics, PHQ-9, PHQ-2, general health perception rating and CD4 count.


Rates for PHQ-9 DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), other depressive disorder (ODD) and any depressive disorder were 13%, 21% and 34%. Depression was associated with female gender, but not CD4. Construct validity was supported by: (1) a strong association between PHQ-9 and general health rating, (2) a single major factor with loadings exceeding 0.50, (3) item-total correlations exceeding 0.37 and (4) a pattern of item means similar to US validation studies. Four focus groups indicated culturally relevant content validity and minor modifications to the PHQ-9 instructions. Coefficient alpha was 0.78. Test-retest reliability was acceptable: (1) intraclass correlation 0.59 for PHQ-9 total score, (2) kappas 0.24, 0.25 and 0.38 for PHQ-9 MDD, ODD and any depressive disorder and (3) weighted kappa 0.53 for PHQ-9 depression severity categories. PHQ-2 ≥3 demonstrated high sensitivity (85%) and specificity (95%) for diagnosing any PHQ-9 depressive disorder (AUC, 0.97), and 91% and 77%, respectively, for diagnosing PHQ-9 MDD (AUC, 0.91). Psychometrics were also good within four gender/age (18–35, 36–61) subgroups.


PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 appear valid/reliable for assessing DSM-IV depressive disorders and depression severity among adults living with HIV/AIDS in western Kenya.



Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2008