Self-Reported Peripheral Arterial Disease Predicts Future Vascular Events in a Community-Based Cohort
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- Salameh, M.J., Rundek, T., Boden-Albala, B. et al. J GEN INTERN MED (2008) 23: 1423. doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0694-x
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Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is highly prevalent and strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The ankle-brachial index used to screen for PAD is not routinely performed in primary care settings.
To determine if self-reported PAD is an independent predictor of combined vascular events (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and vascular death).
Ongoing population-based prospective cohort (the Northern Manhattan Study). Subjects enrolled between July 1993 and June 2001 with a mean follow-up time of 7.1 years.
Subjects (n = 2,977), aged 40 years or older and free of prior stroke or myocardial infarction, were classified as having self-reported PAD if they answered affirmatively to one of two questions regarding exercise-induced leg pain or a prior diagnosis of PAD.
Main Outcome Measures
Combined vascular outcome defined as incident myocardial infarction, incident ischemic stroke, or vascular death.
The mean age of the cohort was 68.9 ± 10.4 years; 64% were women; 54% Hispanic, 25% African-American, 21% Caucasian; 15% reported having PAD. After a mean follow-up of 7.1 years, self-reported PAD was significantly predictive of combined events (n = 484) in the univariate model (HR 1.5, 95% CI, 1.2–1.9) and after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (HR 1.3, 95% CI, 1.0–1.7).
Self-reported PAD is an independent risk factor for future vascular events in this predominantly non-white cohort. The addition of two simple PAD questions to the routine medical history in general medicine settings could identify high-risk patients who would benefit from further vascular evaluation and risk factor modification.