Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 22, Issue 7, pp 969–975

Resident Perceptions of the Impact of Work Hour Limitations

  • Grace A. Lin
  • David C. Beck
  • Anita L. Stewart
  • Jane M. Garbutt
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11606-007-0223-3

Cite this article as:
Lin, G.A., Beck, D.C., Stewart, A.L. et al. J GEN INTERN MED (2007) 22: 969. doi:10.1007/s11606-007-0223-3



Mandatory work hour limitations for residents began in July 2003. There has been little evaluation of the impact of the new limitations on Internal Medicine residency training.


To assess Internal Medicine residents’ perceptions of the impact of work hour limitations on clinical experiences, patient care, resident education, and well-being, and their compliance with the limitations.


Cross-sectional survey administered to Internal Medicine residents at 1 large U.S. teaching hospital.


Resident perceptions using 5-point Likert scales, and self-reported compliance. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify underlying domains and develop scales.


The survey response rate was 85%. Five domains were identified by factor analysis: 1) clinical experience, 2) patient care and safety, 3) communication, 4) satisfaction with training, and 5) work–rest balance. Residents perceived work hour limitations to have a negative impact on clinical experience (mean scale score 1.84, 1 = negative, 5 = positive), patient care and safety (2.64), and communication domains (1.98). Effects on satisfaction (3.12) and work–rest balance domains (2.95) were more positive. Senior residents perceived more negative effects of work hour limitations than interns. Compliance was difficult; 94% interns and 70% residents reported violating work hour limits. Patient care and teaching duties were the main reasons for work hour violations.


This study suggests that the current work hour limitations may be having unintended negative consequences on residency training. Ongoing monitoring to evaluate the impact of program changes as a result of work hour regulation is crucial to improving residency training.


work hour limitationsresidencysurveyfactor analysis

Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grace A. Lin
    • 1
  • David C. Beck
    • 2
  • Anita L. Stewart
    • 3
  • Jane M. Garbutt
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of General Internal MedicineUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.University of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Health & Aging University of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Division of General Medical SciencesWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA