Post-traumatic stress disorder. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(2):108–14 (Jan 10).PubMedCrossRef
Goode E. A nation challenged: psychological trauma. The New York Times. September 18, 2001;B:1.
Mishra R. Mental toll on troops detailed. The Boston Globe. July 1, 2004:A1.
Hoge CW, Auchterlonie JL, Milliken CS.
Mental health problems, use of mental health services, and attrition from military service after returning from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023–32 (Mar 1).PubMedCrossRef
Weisler RH, Barbee JG, Townsend MH.
Mental health and recovery in the Gulf Coast after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. JAMA. 2006;296(5):585–8.PubMedCrossRef
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health hazard evaluation of police officers and firefighters after Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, Louisiana, October 17–28 and November 30–December 5, 2005: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2006.
Katrina survivors strive to reclaim their lives. JAMA. 2006;296(5):499–502.PubMedCrossRef
American Psychiatric Association, ed. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.
Mollica RF, Cardozo BL, Osofsky HJ, Raphael B, Ager A, Salama P.
Mental health in complex emergencies. Lancet. 2004;364(9450):2058–67 (Dec 4–10).PubMedCrossRef
Murray CJ, Lopez AD, eds. The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1996; No. 1.
Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE.
Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):593–602.PubMedCrossRef
Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB.
Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52:1048–60.PubMed
Breslau N, Kessler R, Chilcoat H, Schultz L, Davis G, Andreski P.
Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: The 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998; 55:626–32.PubMedCrossRef
Stein M, McQuaid J, Pedrelli P, Lenox R, McCahill M.
Posttraumatic stress disorder in the primary care medical setting. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2000;22:261–9.PubMedCrossRef
Taubman-Ben-Ari O, Rabinowitz J, Feldman D, Vaturi R.
Post-traumatic stress disorder in primary care settings: prevalence and physicians’ detection. Psychol Med. 2001;31:555–60.PubMedCrossRef
Alim TN, Graves E, Mellman TA, Aigbogun N.
Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in an African-American primary care population. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98(10):1630–6.PubMed
Magruder KM, Frueh BC, Knapp RG, et al.
Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in Veterans Affairs primary care clinics [see comment]. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2005;27(3):169–79.PubMedCrossRef
Escalona R, Achilles G, Waitzkin H, Yager J.
PTSD and somatization in women treated at a VA primary care clinic. Psychosomatics. 2004;45(4):291–6 (Jul–Aug).PubMedCrossRef
Zlotnick C, Rodriguez BF, Weisberg RB, et al.
Chronicity in posttraumatic stress disorder and predictors of the course of posttraumatic stress disorder among primary care patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2004;192(2):153–9 (Feb).PubMedCrossRef
Weisberg RB, Bruce SE, Machan JT, Kessler RC, Culpepper L, Keller MB.
Nonpsychiatric illness among primary care patients with trauma histories and posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatr Serv. 2002;53(7):848–54 (Jul).PubMedCrossRef
Samson AY, Bensen S, Beck A, Price D, Nimmer C.
Posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care. J Fam Pract. 1999;48(3):222–7.PubMed
Breslau N, Davis GC, Andreski P.
Risk factors for PTSD-related traumatic events: a prospective analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152(4):529–35.PubMed
Edlund MJ, Unutzer J, Wells KB.
Clinician screening and treatment of alcohol, drug, and mental problems in primary care: results from healthcare for communities. Med Care. 2004;42(12):1158–66 (Dec).PubMedCrossRef
Walker EA, Katon W, Russo J, Ciechanowski P, Newman E, Wagner AW.
Health care costs associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in women. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60(4):369–74.PubMedCrossRef
Calhoun PS, Bosworth HB, Grambow SC, Dudley TK, Beckham JC.
Medical service utilization by veterans seeking help for posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(12):2081–6 (Dec).PubMedCrossRef
Spertus IL, Yehuda R, Wong CM, Halligan S, Seremetis SV.
Childhood emotional abuse and neglect as predictors of psychological and physical symptoms in women presenting to a primary care practice. Child Abuse Negl. 2003;27(11):1247–58 (Nov).PubMedCrossRef
Andreski P, Chilcoat H, Breslau N.
Post-traumatic stress disorder and somatization symptoms: a prospective study. Psychiatry Res. 1998;79(2):131–8 (Jun 15).PubMedCrossRef
Asmundson GJ, Coons MJ, Taylor S, Katz J.
PTSD and the experience of pain: research and clinical implications of shared vulnerability and mutual maintenance models. Can J Psychiatry. 2002;47(10):930–7.PubMed
Bryant RA, Marosszeky JE, Crooks J, Baguley IJ, Gurka JA.
Interaction of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain following traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1999;14(6):588–94.PubMedCrossRef
Otis JD, Keane TM, Kerns RD.
An examination of the relationship between chronic pain and post-traumatic stress disorder. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2003;40(5):397–405.PubMedCrossRef
Frayne SM, Seaver MR, Loveland S, et al.
Burden of medical illness in women with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(12):1306–12.PubMedCrossRef
Bonin MF, Norton GR, Asmundson GJ, Dicurzio S, Pidlubney S.
Drinking away the hurt: the nature and prevalence of PTSD in substance abuse patients attending a community-based treatment program. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2000;31(1):55–66 (Mar).PubMedCrossRef
Rodriguez BF, Weisberg RB, Pagano ME, Machan JT, Culpepper L, Keller MB.
Mental health treatment received by primary care patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(10):1230–6.PubMedCrossRef
Smith MV, Rosenheck RA, Cavaleri MA, Howell HB, Poschman K, Yonkers KA.
Screening for and detection of depression, panic disorder, and PTSD in public-sector obstetric clinics. Psychiatr Serv. 2004;55(4):407–14 (Apr).PubMedCrossRef
Hankin CS, Spiro A, 3rd, Miller DR, Kazis L.
Mental disorders and mental health treatment among U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs outpatients: the Veterans Health Study. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156(12):1924–30 (Dec).PubMed
Kubany ES, McKenzie WF, Owens JA, Leisen MB, Kaplan AS, Pavich E.
PTSD among women survivors of domestic violence in Hawaii. Hawaii Med J. 1996;55(9):164–5 (Sep).PubMed
Davis TM, Wood PS.
Substance abuse and sexual trauma in a female veteran population. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1999;16(2):123–7.PubMedCrossRef
Najavits LM, Weiss RD, Shaw SR.
The link between substance abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder in women. A research review. Am J Addict. 1997;6(4):273–83.PubMedCrossRef
Reynolds M, Mezey G, Chapman M, Wheeler M, Drummond C, Baldacchino A.
Co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder in a substance misusing clinical population. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;77(3):251–8 (Mar 7).PubMedCrossRef
Brown PJ, Recupero PR, Stout R.
PTSD substance abuse comorbidity and treatment utilization. Addict Behav. 1995;20(2):251–4 (Mar–Apr).PubMedCrossRef
Drossman DA, Leserman J, Nachman G, et al.
Sexual and physical abuse in women with functional or organic gastrointestinal disorders. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113:828–33.PubMed
Drossman DA, Talley NJ, Leserman J, Olden KW, Barreiro MA.
Sexual and physical abuse and gastrointestinal illness: review and recommendations. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123:782–94.PubMed
Holman EA, Silver RC, Waitzkin H.
Traumatic life events in primary care patients: a study in an ethnically diverse sample. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9(9):802–10 (Sept/Oct).PubMedCrossRef
Force UPST. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, 2nd Edition. Bethesda, MD; 1996.
Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB.
Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire. JAMA. 1999;282(18):1737–44.PubMedCrossRef
Drossman DA, Corazziari E, Talley NJ, Thompson WG, Whitehead WE. Rome II. The Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Diagnosis, Pathophysiology and Treatment: A Multinational Consensus. McLean, VA: Degnon Associates; 2000.
Purves AM, Penny KI, Munro C, et al. Defining chronic pain for epidemiological research assessing a subjective definition. Pain Clinic. 1998;10(3):139–47.
World Health Organization. Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI): Version 2.1. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1997.
Kessler R, Andrews G, Mroczek D, Ustun B, Wittchen HU.
The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form (CIDI-SF). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 1998;7(4):171–85.CrossRef
Health, United States, 2004 With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2004.
Dobie DJ, Kivlahan DR, Maynard C, Bush KR, Davis TM, Bradley KA.
Posttraumatic stress disorder in female veterans: association with self-reported health problems and functional impairment. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(4):394–400 (Feb 23).PubMedCrossRef
Sherman JJ, Turk DC, Okifuji A.
Prevalence and impact of posttraumatic stress disorder-like symptoms on patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Clin J Pain. 2000;16(2):127–34 (Jun).PubMedCrossRef
Engel CC, Jr., Liu X, McCarthy BD, Miller RF, Ursano R.
Relationship of physical symptoms to posttraumatic stress disorder among veterans seeking care for gulf war-related health concerns. Psychosom Med. 2000;62(6):739–45 (Nov–Dec).PubMed
Asmundson GJ, Wright KD, Stein MB.
Pain and PTSD symptoms in female veterans. Eur J Pain. 2004;8(4):345–50 (Aug).PubMedCrossRef
Amir M, Kaplan Z, Neumann L, Sharabani R, Shani N, Buskila D.
Posttraumatic stress disorder, tenderness and fibromyalgia. J Psychosom Res. 1997;42(6):607–13 (Jun).PubMedCrossRef
Lauterbach D, Vora R, Rakow M.
The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and self-reported health problems. Psychosom Med. 2005;67(6):939–47 (Nov–Dec).PubMedCrossRef
Beckham J, Crawford A, Feldman ME, et al. Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain in Vietnam combat veterans. J Psychiatr Res. 1997;43(4):379–89.
Frayne SM, Skinner KM, Sullivan LM, et al.
Medical profile of women Veterans Administration outpatients who report a history of sexual assault occurring while in the military. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 1999;8(6):835–45 (Jul–Aug).PubMedCrossRef
Liebschutz JM, Feinman G, Sullivan L, Stein MD, Samet J.
Physical and sexual abuse in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: increased illness and health care utilization. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1659–64.PubMedCrossRef
Liebschutz JM, Mulvey KP, Samet JH.
Victimization among substance-abusing women: worse health outcomes. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:1093–97.PubMedCrossRef
Sharp TJ, Harvey AG.
Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder: mutual maintenance? Clin Psychol Rev. 2001;21(6):857–77 (Aug).PubMedCrossRef
Griffin MG, Resick PA, Yehuda R.
Enhanced cortisol suppression following dexamethasone administration in domestic violence survivors. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(6):1192–9 (Jun).PubMedCrossRef
Nixon RD, Bryant RA, Moulds ML, Felmingham KL, Mastrodomenico JA.
Physiological arousal and dissociation in acute trauma victims during trauma narratives. J Trauma Stress. 2005;18(2):107–13 (Apr).PubMedCrossRef
Zlotnick C, Bruce SE, Weisberg RB, Shea MT, Machan JT, Keller MB.
Social and health functioning in female primary care patients with post-traumatic stress disorder with and without comorbid substance abuse. Compr Psychiatry. 2003;44(3):177–83.PubMedCrossRef
Jacobsen LK, Southwick SM, Kosten TR.
Substance use disorders in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the literature. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(8):1184–90.PubMedCrossRef
Brady KT, Sinha R.
Co-occurring mental and substance use disorders: the neurobiological effects of chronic stress. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(8):1483–93.PubMedCrossRef
Bremner JD, Southwick SM, Darnell A, Charney DS.
Chronic PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans: course of illness and substance abuse. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153(3):369–75.PubMed
Bruce SE, Weisberg RB, Dolan RT, et al. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care patients. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiat. 2001;3(5):211–7 (Oct).
Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, et al.
The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA. 2003;289(23):3095–105 (Jun 18).PubMedCrossRef
Wang PS, Berglund P, Kessler RC.
Recent care of common mental disorders in the United States: prevalence and conformance with evidence-based recommendations. J Gen Intern Med. 2000;15(5): 284–92.PubMedCrossRef
Oquendo MA, Malone KM, Ellis SP, Sackeim HA, Mann JJ.
Inadequacy of antidepressant treatment for patients with major depression who are at risk for suicidal behavior. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156(2):190–4.PubMed
Seong-Yi B, Bowers B, Oakley L, Susman J.
The recognition of depression: the primary care clinician’s perspective. Ann Fam Med. 2005;3:31–7.CrossRef
Foa EB, Davidson JRT, Frances A. The expert consensus guideline series: treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60(suppl 16):1–76.
Bradley R, Greene J, Russ E, Dutra L, Westen D.
A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(2):214–27 (Feb).PubMedCrossRef
Institute of Medicine, ed. Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance Use Conditions: Quality Chasm Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2006.
Katzelnick DJ, Simon GE, Pearson SD, et al.
Randomized trial of a depression management program in high utilizers of medical care. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9(4):345–51 (Apr).PubMedCrossRef
Lin EH, Katon W, Von Korff M, et al.
Effect of improving depression care on pain and functional outcomes among older adults with arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;290(18):2428–29 (Nov 12).PubMedCrossRef
Simon GE, Katon W, Rutter C, et al.
Impact of improved depression treatment in primary care on daily functioning and disability. Psychol Med. 1998;28(3):693–701 (May).PubMedCrossRef
Von Korff M, Balderson BH, Saunders K, et al.
A trial of an activating intervention for chronic back pain in primary care and physical therapy settings. Pain. 2005;113(3):323–30 (Feb).CrossRef
Lin EH, VonKorff M, Russo J, et al.
Can depression treatment in primary care reduce disability? A stepped care approach. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9(10):1052–8 (Nov–Dec).PubMedCrossRef
Self-rated health within the Canadian immigrant population: risk and the healthy immigrant effect. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60(6):1359–70.PubMedCrossRef
Chen AW, Kazanjian A.
Rate of mental health service utilization by Chinese immigrants in British Columbia. Can J Public Health. 2005;96(1):49–51.PubMed
Marshall GN, Schell TL, Elliott MN, Berthold SM, Chun CA.
Mental health of Cambodian refugees 2 decades after resettlement in the United States. JAMA. 2005;294(5):571–9.PubMedCrossRef
Dobie DJ, Maynard C, Kivlahan DR, et al.
Posttraumatic stress disorder screening status is associated with increased VA medical and surgical utilization in women. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21(suppl 3):S58–S64 (Mar).PubMedCrossRef
Hemenway D, Prothrow-Stith D, Browne A. Report of the 2004 Boston Youth Survey. Boston: City of Boston; 2005 (Aug).
Ahern J, Galea S, Fernandez WG, Koci B, Waldman R, Vlahov D.
Gender, social support, and posttraumatic stress in postwar Kosovo. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2004;192(11):762–70.PubMedCrossRef
Glynn SM, Asarnow JR, Asarnow R, et al.
The development of acute post-traumatic stress disorder after orofacial injury: a prospective study in a large urban hospital. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;61(7):785–92.PubMedCrossRef
Muller RT, Goebel-Fabbri AE, Diamond T, Dinklage D.
Social support and the relationship between family and community violence exposure and psychopathology among high risk adolescents. Child Abuse Negl. 2000;24(4):449–64.PubMedCrossRef
Viinamaki H, Kontula O, Niskanen L, Koskela K.
The association between economic and social factors and mental health in Finland. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1995;92(3):208–13.PubMedCrossRef
Steptoe A, Marmot M.
Burden of psychosocial adversity and vulnerability in middle age: associations with biobehavioral risk factors and quality of life. Psychosom Med. 2003;65(6):1029–37.PubMedCrossRef
Sherbourne CD, Stewart AL.
The MOS social support survey. Soc Sci Med. 1991;32(6):705–14.PubMedCrossRef
Miller DK, Malmstrom TK, Joshi S, Andresen EM, Morley JE, Wolinsky FD.
Clinically relevant levels of depressive symptoms in community-dwelling middle-aged African Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(5):741–8.PubMedCrossRef
Matheson FI, Moineddin R, Dunn JR, Creatore MI, Gozdyra P, Glazier RH.
Urban neighborhoods, chronic stress, gender and depression. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63(10):2604–16.PubMedCrossRef
O’Toole TP, Arbelaez JJ, Lawrence RS; Baltimore Community Health Consortium.
Medical debt and aggressive debt restitution practices: predatory billing among the urban poor. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19(7):772–8.PubMedCrossRef
Gaskin DJ, Hadley J.
Population characteristics of markets of safety-net and non-safety-net hospitals. J Urban Health. 1999;76(3):351–70.PubMedCrossRef
Bassuk EL, Buckner JC, Perloff JN, Bassuk SS.
Prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders among homeless and low-income housed mothers. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155(11):1561–4.PubMed