, Volume 17, Issue 7, pp 1274-1282
Date: 04 May 2013

Evolution of Image-Guided Liver Surgery: Transition from Open to Laparoscopic Procedures

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Indications for liver surgery to treat primary and secondary hepatic malignancies are broadening. Utilizing data from B-mode or 2-D intraoperative ultrasound, it is often challenging to replicate the findings from preoperative CT or MRI scans. Additional data from more recently developed image-guidance technology, which registers preoperative axial imaging to a 3-D real-time model, may be used to improve operative planning, locate difficult to find hepatic tumors, and guide ablations.


Laparoscopic liver procedures are often more challenging than their open counterparts. Image-guidance technology can assist in overcoming some of the obstacles to minimally invasive liver procedures by enhancing ultrasound findings and ablation guidance. This manuscript describes a protocol that evaluated an open image-guidance system, and a subsequent protocol that directly compared, for validation, a laparoscopic with an open image-guidance system. Both protocols were limited to ablations within the liver.


The laparoscopic image-guidance system successfully creates a 3-D model at both 7 and 14 mm Hg that is similar to the open 3-D model. Ultimately, improving intraoperative image guidance can help expand the ability to perform both laparoscopic and open liver surgeries.