, Volume 19, Issue 7, pp 951-988
Date: 25 May 2013

Review of 5-V electrodes for Li-ion batteries: status and trends

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Abstract

Lithium-ion batteries have dominated the battery industry for the past several years in portable electronic devices due to their high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities. The success of these batteries in small-scale applications translates to large-scale applications, with an important impact in the future of the environment by improving energy efficiency and reduction of pollution. We present the progress that allows several lithium-intercalation compounds to become the active cathode element of a new generation of Li-ion batteries, namely the 5-V cathodes, which are promising to improve the technology of energy storage and electric transportation, and address the replacement of gasoline engine by meeting the increasing demand for green energy power sources. The compounds considered here include spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and its related doped-structures, olivine LiCoPO4, inverse spinel LiNiVO4 and fluorophosphate Li2CoPO4F. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 thin films, nanoscale prepared materials and surface-modified cathode particles are also considered. Emphasis is placed on the quality control that is needed to guarantee the reliability and the optimum electrochemical performance of these materials as the active cathode element of Li-ion batteries. The route to increase the performance of Li-ion batteries with the other members of the family is also discussed.