International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery

, Volume 3, Issue 6, pp 591–598

Reconstruction of 4D deformed CT for moving anatomy

Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11548-008-0266-x

Cite this article as:
Docef, A. & Murphy, M.J. Int J CARS (2008) 3: 591. doi:10.1007/s11548-008-0266-x



To develop a 4DCT reconstruction technique that improves time resolution when the anatomy moves with respiration.


A cone-beam CT (CBCT) scan is performed and a breathing signal is acquired. At the same time a set of simulated CBCT projections is created from a prior source CT deformed by a time-dependent parametric deformation model. The model parameters are iteratively adjusted until the simulated projections optimally resemble the acquired images. This concept was tested with three different simulated deformation scenarios approximating a moving lung tumor with rigid and elastic deformation and a 3D anatomical expansion/contraction.


The known deformation was accurately reconstructed in all three scenarios. The method is reasonably robust to noise and contrast mismatch in the projections


Matching simulated to actual CBCT projections can adequately constrain a 4D model of breathing-induced motion that occurs during acquisition of the CBCT data.


4DCTIterative CT reconstructionDeformable image registration

Copyright information

© CARS 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA