A Systematic Overview of Harvesting-Induced Maturation Evolution in Predator–Prey Systems with Three Different Life-History Tradeoffs
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
There are concerns that anthropogenic harvesting may cause phenotypic adaptive changes in exploited wild populations, in particular maturation at a smaller size and younger age. In this paper, we study the evolutionarily stable size at maturation of prey subjected to size-selective harvesting in a simple predator–prey model, taking into account three recognized life-history costs of early maturation, namely reduced fecundity, reduced growth, and increased mortality. Our analysis shows that harvesting large individuals favors maturation at smaller size compared to the unharvested system, independent of life-history tradeoff and the predator’s prey-size preference. In general, however, the evolutionarily stable maturation size can either increase or decrease relative to the unharvested system, depending on the harvesting regime, the life-history tradeoff, and the predator’s preferred size of prey. Furthermore, we examine how the predator population size changes in response to adaptive change in size at maturation of the prey. Surprisingly, in some situations, we find that the evolutionarily stable maturation size under harvesting is associated with an increased predator population size. This occurs, in particular, when early maturation trades off with growth rate. In total, we determine the evolutionarily stable size at maturation and associated predator population size for a total of forty-five different combinations of tradeoff, harvest regime, and predated size class.
- Abrams, P. A. (2009). Adaptive changes in prey vulnerability shape the response of predator populations to mortality. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 261(2), 294–304. CrossRef
- Abrams, P. A., & Matsuda, H. (2005). The effect of adaptive change in the prey on the dynamics of an exploited predator population. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 62(4), 758–766. CrossRef
- Allendorf, F. W., England, P. R., Luikart, G., Ritchie, P. A., & Ryman, N. (2008). Genetic effects of harvest on wild animal populations. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23(6), 327–337. CrossRef
- Ashley, M. V., Willson, M. F., Pergams, O. R. W., O’Dowd, D. J., Gende, S. M., & Brown, J. S. (2003). Evolutionarily enlightened management. Biological Conservation, 111(2), 115–123. CrossRef
- Baskett, M. L., Levin, S. A., Gaines, S. D., & Dushoff, J. (2005). Marine reserve design and the evolution of size at maturation in harvested fish. Ecological Applications, 15(3), 882–901. CrossRef
- Bishop, D. T., & Cannings, C. (1978). A generalized war of attrition. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 70, 85–124. CrossRef
- Coltman, D. W., O’Donoghue, P., Jorgenson, J. T., Hogg, J. T., Strobeck, C., & Festa-Bianchet, M. (2003). Undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting. Nature, 426(6967), 655–658. CrossRef
- Conover, D. O., Munch, S. B., & Arnott, S. A. (2009). Reversal of evolutionary downsizing caused by selective harvest of large fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.
- Day, T., Abrams, P. A., & Chase, J. M. (2002). The role of size-specific predation in the evolution and diversification of prey life histories. Evolution, 56(5), 877–887.
- de Roos, A. M., Boukal, D. S., & Persson, L. (2006). Evolutionary regime shifts in age and size at maturation of exploited fish stocks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 273(1596), 1873–1880. CrossRef
- Gårdmark, A., & Dieckmann, U. (2006). Disparate maturation adaptations to size-dependent mortality. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 273(1598), 2185–2192. CrossRef
- Gårdmark, A., Dieckmann, U., & Lundberg, P. (2003). Life-history evolution in harvested populations: the role of natural predation. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 5, 239–257.
- Jørgensen, C., Enberg, K., Dunlop, E. S., Arlinghaus, R., Boukal, D. S., Brander, K., Ernande, B., Gårdmark, A., Johnston, F., Matsumura, S., Pardoe, H., Raab, K., Silva, A., Vainikka, A., Dieckmann, U., Heino, M., & Rijnsdorp, A. D. (2007). Ecology: managing evolving fish stocks. Science, 318(5854), 1247–1248. CrossRef
- Law, R., & Grey, D. (1989). Evolution of yields from populations with age-specific cropping. Evolutionary Ecology, 3(4), 343–359. CrossRef
- Maynard Smith, J., & Price, G. R. (1973). The logic of animal conflict. Nature, 246(5427), 15–18. CrossRef
- Mertz, G., & Myers, R. A. (1998). A simplified formulation for fish production. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55(2), 478–484. CrossRef
- Mylius, S. D., & Diekmann, O. (1995). On evolutionarily stable life histories, optimization and the need to be specific about density dependence. Oikos, 74(2), 218–224. CrossRef
- Persson, L., Amundsen, P. A., de Roos, A. M., Klemetsen, A., Knudsen, R., & Primicerio, R. (2007). Culling prey promotes predator recovery–alternative states in a whole-lake experiment. Science, 316(5832), 1743. CrossRef
- Poos, J. J., Brännström, Å., & Dieckmann, U. (2011). Harvest-induced maturation evolution under different life-history trade-offs and harvesting regimes. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 279(1), 102–112. CrossRef
- Ricker, W. E. (1981). Changes in the average size and average age of Pacific salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 38(12), 1636–1656. CrossRef
- Ricker, W. E. (1995). Trends in the average size of Pacific salmon in Canadian catches. In Canadian special publication of fisheries and aquatic sciences (pp. 593–602).
- Rijnsdorp, A. D. (1993). Fisheries as a large-scale experiment on life-history evolution: disentangling phenotypic and genetic effects in changes in maturation and reproduction of North Sea plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L. Oecologia, 96(3), 391–401. CrossRef
- Roff, D. A. (1992). The evolution of life histories: theory and analysis. London: Chapman & Hall.
- Rowe, S. (2001). Movement and harvesting mortality of American lobsters (homarus americanus) tagged inside and outside no-take reserves in Bonavista bay, Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 58(7), 1336–1346. CrossRef
- Thomas, B. (1985). On evolutionarily stable sets. Journal of Mathematical Biology, 22, 105–115. CrossRef
- Toïgo, C., Servanty, S., Gaillard, J. M., Brandt, S., & Baubet, E. (2008). Disentangling natural from hunting mortality in an intensively hunted wild boar population. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 72(7), 1532–1539.
- A Systematic Overview of Harvesting-Induced Maturation Evolution in Predator–Prey Systems with Three Different Life-History Tradeoffs
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Volume 74, Issue 12 , pp 2842-2860
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Predator–prey systems
- Evolutionarily stable strategy
- Harvesting-induced evolution
- Life-history tradeoffs
- Size structure
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361, Laxenburg, Austria
- 2. Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 90187, Umeå, Sweden
- 3. Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, Umeå University, 90187, Umeå, Sweden