Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 88, Issue 1, pp 176–185

Individual- and Neighborhood-Level Characteristics Associated with Support of In-Pharmacy Vaccination among ESAP-Registered Pharmacies: Pharmacists’ Role in Reducing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccinations in New York City

  • Natalie D. Crawford
  • Shannon Blaney
  • Silvia Amesty
  • Alexis V. Rivera
  • Alezandria K. Turner
  • Danielle C. Ompad
  • Crystal M. Fuller
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11524-010-9541-6

Cite this article as:
Crawford, N.D., Blaney, S., Amesty, S. et al. J Urban Health (2011) 88: 176. doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9541-6

Abstract

New York State (NYS) passed legislation authorizing pharmacists to administer immunizations in 2008. Racial/socioeconomic disparities persist in vaccination rates and vaccine-preventable diseases such as influenza. Many NYS pharmacies participate in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP), which allows provision of non-prescription syringes to help prevent transmission of HIV, and are uniquely positioned to offer vaccination services to low-income communities. To understand individual and neighborhood characteristics of pharmacy staff support for in-pharmacy vaccination, we combined census tract data with baseline pharmacy data from the Pharmacies as Resources Making Links to Community Services (PHARM-Link) study among ESAP-registered pharmacies. The sample consists of 437 pharmacists, non-pharmacist owners, and technicians enrolled from 103 eligible New York City pharmacies. Using multilevel analysis, pharmacy staff who expressed support of in-pharmacy vaccination services were 69% more likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing services (OR, 1.69; 95% CI 1.39–2.04). While pharmacy staff who worked in neighborhoods with a high percent of minority residents were less likely to express support of in-pharmacy vaccination, those in neighborhoods with a high percent of foreign-born residents were marginally more likely to express support of in-pharmacy vaccination. While educational campaigns around the importance of vaccination access may be needed among some pharmacy staff and minority community residents, we have provided evidence supporting scale-up of vaccination efforts in pharmacies located in foreign-born/immigrant communities which has potential to reduce disparities in vaccination rates and preventable influenza-related mortality.

Keywords

Vaccination accessPharmacy servicesPharmacy staff supportRacial/ethnic disparities

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natalie D. Crawford
    • 2
  • Shannon Blaney
    • 1
  • Silvia Amesty
    • 3
    • 4
  • Alexis V. Rivera
    • 2
  • Alezandria K. Turner
    • 2
  • Danielle C. Ompad
    • 1
  • Crystal M. Fuller
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Urban Epidemiologic StudiesNew York Academy of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Center for Family and Community Medicine, College of Physicians and SurgeonsColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA