Social Network Characteristics and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior among Urban African American Women
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
HIV/AIDS has emerged as a significant health threat for African American women with well-documented disparities. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between social network characteristics and high-risk sexual behaviors among a sample of urban African American women at risk of heterosexually acquired HIV/STIs. We performed a cross-sectional study of baseline data collected from the CHAT study, a randomized HIV-prevention trial targeting urban HIV-at-risk women in Baltimore, MD. Our primary outcomes were risky sexual behaviors defined as either (a) two or more sexual partners or (b) having a risky sex partner within the past 90 days. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression examining the associations between individual and social network factors and our two outcomes of interest were conducted. The study population included 513 sexually active African American women with a mean age of 41.1 years. High levels of unemployment (89.5%), depressive symptoms (60.0%), and drug use (68.8%) were present among this high-risk urban cohort. Controlling for individual factors including participant drug use, age, and depression, having two or more sex partners within the past 90 days was associated with having a larger personal network (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.06 and 1.17); more network members who pitched in to help (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04 and 1.44), provided financial support (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.11 and 1.60), or used heroin or cocaine (OR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.14 and 1.40). Having a risky sexual partner within the past 90 days was associated with having a larger social network (OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00 and 1.12) and having more social networks who used heroin or cocaine (OR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14 and 1.49).In summary, social network characteristics are associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors among African American urban women. Social-network-based interventions that promote norms pertaining to HIV risk reduction and provide social support are needed for African American women at risk of heterosexually acquired HIV/STIs.
- Newman LM, Berman SM. Epidemiology of STD disparities in African American communities. Sex Transm Dis. 2008; 35(12 Suppl): S4–S12.
- Annual CDC Report Finds High Burden of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Especially among Women and Racial Minorities-Press Release. Centers for Disease Control. Published in February 3, 2009. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats07/. Accessed September 29, 2009.
- Morris M, Kurth A, Hamilton D, Moody J, Wakefield S. Concurrent partnerships and HIV prevalence disparities by race: linking science and public health practice. Am J Public Health. 2009; 99(6): 1023–1031. CrossRef
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update to racial/ethnic disparities in diagnoses of HIV/AIDS—33 states, 2001–2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007; 56(9): 189–193. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/reports/mmwr/pdf/mm5609_update.pdf.
- Adimora A, Schoenbach V, Martinson F, et al. Heterosexually transmitted HIV infection among African Americans in North Carolina. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006; 41(5): 616–623. CrossRef
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heterosexual transmission of HIV: 29 states, 1999–2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004; 53(6): 125–129.
- Forna F, Fitzpatrick L, Adimora A, et al. A case-control study of factors associated with HIV infection among black women. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006; 98(11): 1798–1804.
- Williams P, Ekundayo O, Udezulu I, Omishakin A. An ethnically sensitive and gender-specific HIV/AIDS assessment of African American women. A comparative study of urban and rural American communities. Fam Community Health. 2003; 26(2): 108–123.
- Hogben M, Leichliter JS. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities. Sex Transm Dis. 2008; 35(12 Suppl): S13–S18.
- Adimora A, Schoenbach V. Social context, sexual networks, and racial disparities in rates of sexually transmitted infections. J Infect Dis. 2005; 191(Suppl 1): S115–S122. CrossRef
- Adimora AA, Schoenbach VJ, Floris-Moore MA. Ending the epidemic of heterosexual HIV transmission among African Americans. Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37(5): 468–471. CrossRef
- Tobin KE, Latkin CA. An examination of social network characteristics of men who have sex with men who use drugs. Sex Transm Infect. 2008; 84(6): 420–424. CrossRef
- De P, Cox J, Boivin JF, Platt RW, Jolly AM. The importance of social networks in their association to drug equipment sharing among injection drug users: a review. Addiction. 2007; 102(11): 1730–1739. CrossRef
- Latkin CA, Kuramoto SJ, Davey-Rothwell MA, Tobin KE. Social norms, social networks, and HIV risk behavior among injection drug users. AIDS Behav. 2009; 14(5): 1159–1168. CrossRef
- Latkin CA, Mandell W, Vlahov D. The relationship between risk networks’ patterns of crack cocaine and alcohol consumption and HIV-related sexual behaviors among adult injection drug users: a prospective study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1996; 42(3): 175–181. CrossRef
- Pilowsky DJ, Hoover D, Hadden B, et al. Impact of social network characteristics on high-risk sexual behaviors among non-injection drug users. Subst Use Misuse. 2007; 42(11): 1629–1649. CrossRef
- Neaigus A, Friedman SR, Goldstein M, Ildefonso G, Curtis R, Jose B. Using dyadic data for a network analysis of HIV infection and risk behaviors among injecting drug users. NIDA Res Monogr. 1995; 151: 20–37.
- Latkin CA, Knowlton AR, Hoover D, Mandell W. Drug network characteristics as a predictor of cessation of drug use among adult injection drug users: a prospective study. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1999; 25(3): 463–473. CrossRef
- Latkin C, Mandell W, Vlahov D, Oziemkowska M, Celentano D. People and places: behavioral settings and personal network characteristics as correlates of needle sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996; 13(3): 273–280.
- Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1977; 1(3): 385–401. CrossRef
- Khan MR, Wohl DA, Weir SS, et al. Incarceration and risky sexual partnerships in a southern US city. J Urban Health. 2008; 85(1): 100–113. CrossRef
- Khan MR, Miller WC, Schoenbach VJ, et al. Timing and duration of incarceration and high-risk sexual partnerships among African Americans in North Carolina. Ann Epidemiol. 2008; 18(5): 403–410. CrossRef
- Zeger SL, Liang KY. Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes. Biometrics. 1986; 42(1): 121–130. CrossRef
- Aidala AA, Sumartojo E. Why housing? AIDS Behav. 2007; 11(6 Suppl): 1–6. CrossRef
- Perry S, Jacobsberg LB, Fishman B, Frances A, Bobo J, Jacobsberg BK. Psychiatric diagnosis before serological testing for the human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147(1): 89–93.
- Hutton HE, Lyketsos CG, Zenilman JM, Thompson RE, Erbelding EJ. Depression and HIV risk behaviors among patients in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161(5): 912–914. CrossRef
- Aral SO, Adimora AA, Fenton KA. Understanding and responding to disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in African Americans. Lancet. 2008; 372(9635): 337–340. CrossRef
- Fleming PL, Lansky A, Lee LM, Nakashima AK. The epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in women in the southern United States. Sex Transm Dis. 2006; 33(7 Suppl): S32–S38.
- Klein H, Elifson KW, Sterk CE. Depression and HIV risk behavior practices among at risk women. Women Health. 2008; 48(2): 167–188. CrossRef
- Winningham A, Corwin S, Moore C, Richter D, Sargent R, Gore-Felton C. The changing age of HIV: sexual risk among older African American women living in rural communities. Prev Med. 2004; 39(4): 809–814. CrossRef
- Stampley CD, Mallory C, Gabrielson M. HIV/AIDS among midlife African American women: an integrated review of literature. Res Nurs Health. 2005; 28(4): 295–305. CrossRef
- Cornelius JB, Moneyham L, LeGrand S. Adaptation of an HIV prevention curriculum for use with older African American women. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2008; 19(1): 16–27. CrossRef
- Sikkema KJ, Heckman TG, Kelly JA, et al. HIV risk behaviors among women living in low-income, inner-city housing developments. Am J Public Health. 1996; 86(8): 1123–1128. CrossRef
- Stratford D, Mizuno Y, Williams K, Courtenay-Quirk C, O’Leary A. Addressing poverty as risk for disease: recommendations from CDC’s consultation on microenterprise as HIV prevention. Public Health Rep. 2008; 123(1): 9–20.
- Hoffman JA, Klein H, Eber M, Crosby H. Frequency and intensity of crack use as predictors of women’s involvement in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2000; 58(3): 227–236. CrossRef
- Rasch RF, Weisen CA, MacDonald B, Wechsberg W, Perritt R, Dennis ML. Patterns of HIV risk and alcohol use among African-American crack abusers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2000; 58(3): 259–266. CrossRef
- Latkin CA, Hua W, Forman VL. The relationship between social network characteristics and exchanging sex for drugs or money among drug users in Baltimore, MD, USA. Int J STD AIDS. 2003; 14(11): 770–775. CrossRef
- O’Leary A. Substance use and HIV: disentangling the nexus of risk. Introduction. J Subst Abuse. 2001; 13(1-2): 1–3. CrossRef
- Sherman SG, German D, Cheng Y, Marks M, Bailey-Kloche M. The evaluation of the JEWEL project: an innovative economic enhancement and HIV prevention intervention study targeting drug using women involved in prostitution. AIDS Care. 2006; 18(1): 1–11. CrossRef
- Tyler KA. Social network characteristics and risky sexual behaviors among homeless young adults. Paper presented at: American Sociological Association 2006 Annual Meeting; August 11, 2006; Montreal, QC, Canada. Available at: http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p103556_index.html. Accessed June 2010.
- Latkin CA. Outreach in natural settings: the use of peer leaders for HIV prevention among injecting drug users’ networks. Public Health Rep. 1998; 113(Suppl 1): 151–159.
- Friedman SR, Aral S. Social networks, risk-potential networks, health, and disease. J Urban Health. 2001; 78(3): 411–418.
- Wasserheit JN, Aral SO. The dynamic topology of sexually transmitted disease epidemics:implications for prevention strategies. J Infect Dis. 1996; 174(Suppl 2): S201–S213.
- Latkin CA, Buchanan AS, Metsch LR, et al. Predictors of sharing injection equipment by HIV-seropositive injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008; 49(4): 447–450. CrossRef
- Purcell DW, Latka MH, Metsch LR, et al. Results from a randomized controlled trial of a peer-mentoring intervention to reduce HIV transmission and increase access to care and adherence to HIV medications among HIV-seropositive injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007; 46(Suppl 2): S35–S47.
- Crepaz N, Marshall KJ, Aupont LW, et al. The efficacy of HIV/STI behavioral interventions for African American females in the United States: a meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. 2009; 99(11): 2069–2078. CrossRef
- Social Network Characteristics and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior among Urban African American Women
Journal of Urban Health
Volume 88, Issue 1 , pp 54-65
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- African American women
- Social network characteristics
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 1830 East Monument Street, 8th Floor, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA
- 3. 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop C-09, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA
- 2. Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA