Journal of Urban Health

, 86:5

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Simultaneous Recruitment of Drug Users and Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States and Russia Using Respondent-Driven Sampling: Sampling Methods and Implications

  • Martin Y. IguchiAffiliated withRAND CorporationSchool of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Email author 
  • , Allison J. OberAffiliated withRAND Corporation
  • , Sandra H. BerryAffiliated withRAND Corporation
  • , Terry FainAffiliated withRAND Corporation
  • , Douglas D. HeckathornAffiliated withCornell University
  • , Pamina M. GorbachAffiliated withSchool of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
  • , Robert HeimerAffiliated withYale University
  • , Andrei KozlovAffiliated withBiomedical Center
  • , Lawrence J. OuelletAffiliated withSchool of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
    • , Steven ShoptawAffiliated withDavid Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
    • , William A. ZuleAffiliated withResearch Triangle Institute (RTI) International


The Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program (SATHCAP) examined the role of drug use in the sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from traditional high-risk groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and drug users (DU), to lower risk groups in three US cities and in St. Petersburg, Russia. SATHCAP employed respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and a dual high-risk group sampling approach that relied on peer recruitment for a combined, overlapping sample of MSM and DU. The goal of the sampling approach was to recruit an RDS sample of MSM, DU, and individuals who were both MSM and DU (MSM/DU), as well as a sample of sex partners of MSM, DU, and MSM/DU and sex partners of sex partners. The approach efficiently yielded a sample of 8,355 participants, including sex partners, across all four sites. At the US sites—Los Angeles, Chicago, and Raleigh–Durham—the sample consisted of older (mean age = 41 years), primarily black MSM and DU (both injecting and non-injecting); in St. Petersburg, the sample consisted of primarily younger (mean age = 28 years) MSM and DU (injecting). The US sites recruited a large proportion of men who have sex with men and with women, an important group with high potential for establishing a generalized HIV epidemic involving women. The advantage of using the dual high-risk group approach and RDS was, for the most part, the large, efficiently recruited samples of MSM, DU, and MSM/DU. The disadvantages were a recruitment bias by race/ethnicity and income status (at the US sites) and under-enrollment of MSM samples because of short recruitment chains (at the Russian site).


Respondent-driven sampling HIV MSM MSMW DU IDU SATHCAP