, Volume 83, Issue 4, pp 656-668

Unprotected Sexual Behavior Among Heterosexual HIV-Positive Injection Drug Using Men: Associations by Partner Type and Partner Serostatus

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Abstract

Few studies have examined sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive, heterosexual, injection drug using (IDU) men. We investigated such behaviors and associations with risk among sexually active, HIV-positive IDU men who reported only female sex partners in the 3 months prior to baseline interview. We examined associations separately for four non-exclusive groups of men by crossing partner type (main or casual) and partner serostatus (HIV-positive or HIV-negative/unknown). Of 732 male participants, 469 (64%) were sexually active with only female partners. Of these 469 men, 155 (33%) reported sex with HIV-positive main partners, 127 (27%) with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners, 145 (31%) with HIV-positive casual partners, and 192 (41%) with HIV-negative/unknown serostatus casual partners. Significant multivariate associations for unprotected sex with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners were less self-efficacy to use condoms, weaker partner norms supporting condoms, and more negative condom beliefs. Similar correlates were found for unprotected sex with HIV-positive main and casual partners. In addition, alcohol or drug use during sex was a significant correlate of unprotected sex with HIV-positive main partners, while depression was significant for HIV-positive casual partners. For unprotected sex with HIV-negative/unknown status casual partners, self-efficacy for condom use, sex trade, and education were significant multivariate correlates. A combination of broad and tailored intervention strategies based on the relationship pattern of men's lives may provide the most benefit for reducing unprotected sex with female partners.

Purcell and Mizuno are with the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; Metsch is with the University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA; Garfein is with the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; Tobin is with the Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; Knight is with the University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Latka is with the Center for Urban Epidemiologic Studies, New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.