Imaging in targeted delivery of therapy to cancer
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- Dancey, G., Begent, R.H. & Meyer, T. Targ Oncol (2009) 4: 201. doi:10.1007/s11523-009-0119-8
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We review the current status of imaging as applied to targeted therapy with particular focus on antibody-based therapeutics. Antibodies have high tumor specificity and can be engineered to optimize delivery to, and retention within, the tumor. Whole antibodies can activate natural immune effector mechanisms and can be conjugated to β- and α-emitting radionuclides, toxins, enzymes, and nanoparticles for enhanced therapeutic effect. Imaging is central to the development of these agents and is used for patient selection, performing dosimetry and assessment of response. γ- and positron-emitting radionuclides may be used to image the distribution of antibody-targeted therapeutics While some radionuclides such as iodine-131 emit both β and γ radiation and are therefore suitable for both imaging and therapy, others are more suited to imaging or therapy alone. Hence for radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumors, patients can be selected for therapy on the basis of γ-emitting indium-111-octreotide imaging and treated with β-emitting yttrium-90-octreotate. Positron-emitting radionuclides can give greater sensitivity that γ-emitters but only a single radionuclide can be imaged at one time and the range of radionuclides is more limited. The multiple options for antibody-based therapeutic molecules, imaging technologies and therapeutic scenarios mean that very large amounts of diverse data are being acquired. This can be most effectively shared and progress accelerated by use of common data standards for imaging, biological, and clinical data.