Automatic detection of motion artifacts in the ballistocardiogram measured on a modified bathroom scale
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- Wiard, R.M., Inan, O.T., Argyres, B. et al. Med Biol Eng Comput (2011) 49: 213. doi:10.1007/s11517-010-0722-y
Ballistocardiography (BCG) is a non-invasive technique used to measure the ejection force of blood into the aorta which can be used to estimate cardiac output and contractility change. In this work, a noise sensor was embedded in a BCG measurement system to detect excessive motion from standing subjects. For nine healthy subjects, the cross-correlation of the motion signal to the BCG noise—estimated using a simultaneously acquired electrocardiogram and statistics of the BCG signal—was found to be 0.94 and 0.87, during periods of standing still and with induced motion artifacts, respectively. In a separate study, where 35 recordings were taken from seven subjects, a threshold-based algorithm was used to flag motion-corrupted segments of the BCG signal using only the auxiliary motion sensor. Removing these flagged segments enhanced the BCG signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by an average of 14 dB (P < 0.001). This integrated motion-sensing technique addresses a gap in methods available to identify and remove noise in standing BCG recordings due to movement, in a practical manner that does not require user intervention or obtrusive sensing.