The present investigation on fungal diversity shows that there were rich fungal resources of up to 196 species, belonging to 41 families and 90 genera, in the Qinling Mountainous Range of central China. The dominant families were Polyporaceae, Russulaceae, Tricholomatacea and Lycoperdaceae, which comprised 107 species, 54.59% of the total species. The dominant genera were Russula, Lactarius, Trametes, Phellinus, Coprinus, Lycoperdon, Suillu, and Calvatia, which consisted of 59 species, 30.09% of the total species. According to the geographical characteristics, the genera were grouped into: cosmopolitan element (74.98%), pantropical element (3.57%), tropical element (1.02%) and north temperate element (21.43%), with the cosmopolitan element constituting the majority. Among these, the cosmopolitan and North Temperate Zone were characteristic of this region. Based on relevant literature review, the primary pharmaceutical action of the medicinal fungi in Qinling Mountain can be classified as follows: anti-cancer, anti-bacteria, anti-inflammation, relief of muscle rigidity and activation of collaterals, hemostasis, immunological regulation, as well as nourishing the stomach and tonification which means enhancing the body system.