Glia Maturation Factor Induces Interleukin-33 Release from Astrocytes: Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases
- First Online:
- Cite this article as:
- Kempuraj, D., Khan, M.M., Thangavel, R. et al. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol (2013) 8: 643. doi:10.1007/s11481-013-9439-7
- 609 Views
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS) involve activation of glial cells and release of inflammatory mediators leading to death of neurons. Glia maturation factor (GMF) is up-regulated in the central nervous system (CNS) in these neurodegenerative diseases. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is highly expressed constitutively in the CNS. We have treated mouse astrocytes, mixed culture with glial cells and neurons, and only neurons with GMF and/or IL-33 in vitro. Both GMF and IL-33-induced chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) release in a dose and time-dependent manner. We report that GMF induced IL-33 release, and that IL-33 augments GMF-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) release from mouse astrocytes. IL-33 induces CCL2, TNF-α and nitric oxide release through phosphorylation of ERK in mouse astrocytes. Incubation of mixed culture containing glial cells and neurons or only neuronal culture with IL-33 reduced the number of neurons positive for microtubule-associated protein 2. In conclusion, IL-33 augments GMF-mediated neuroinflammation and may provide a new drug target for neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases.