Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 278–293

Innate and Adaptive Factors Regulating Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Genomic Activation

  • Sonia Shah
  • Michael R. Nonnemacher
  • Vanessa Pirrone
  • Brian Wigdahl
INVITED REVIEW

DOI: 10.1007/s11481-010-9207-x

Cite this article as:
Shah, S., Nonnemacher, M.R., Pirrone, V. et al. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol (2010) 5: 278. doi:10.1007/s11481-010-9207-x

Abstract

Over the past decade, antiretroviral therapy targeting the viral entry process, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease, has prolonged the lives of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, despite the development of more effective therapeutic strategies, reservoirs of viral infection remain. This review discusses molecular mechanisms surrounding the development of latency from the site of integration to pre- and post-integration maintenance of latency, including epigenetic factors. In addition, an overview of innate and adaptive cells important to HIV-1 infection are examined from the viewpoint of cytokines released and cytokines that act on these cells to explore an overall understanding of HIV-1 proviral genome activation. Finally, this review is discussed from the viewpoint of how an understanding of the interplay of all of these factors will help guide the next generation of therapies.

Keywords

HIV-1 transcription latency immune factors 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonia Shah
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Michael R. Nonnemacher
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Vanessa Pirrone
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Brian Wigdahl
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyDrexel University College of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Center for Molecular Virology and Translational NeuroscienceDrexel University College of Medicine School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Center for Molecular Therapeutics and ResistanceDrexel University College of Medicine School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious DiseaseDrexel University College of Medicine School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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