, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 455-463
Date: 08 Jul 2012

Efficient Higher Order Full-Wave Numerical Analysis of 3-D Cloaking Structures

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Abstract

Highly efficient and versatile computational electromagnetic analysis of 3-D transformation-based metamaterial cloaking structures based on a hybridization of a higher order finite element method for discretization of the cloaking region and a higher order method of moments for numerical termination of the computational domain is proposed and demonstrated. The technique allows for an effective modeling of the continuously inhomogeneous anisotropic cloaking region, for cloaks based on both linear and nonlinear coordinate transformations, using a very small number of large curved finite elements with continuous spatial variations of permittivity and permeability tensors and high-order p-refined field approximations throughout their volumes, with a very small total number of unknowns. In analysis, there is no need for a discretization of the permittivity and permeability profiles of the cloak, namely for piecewise homogeneous (layered) approximate models, with material tensors replaced by appropriate piecewise constant approximations. Numerical results show a very significant reduction (three to five orders of magnitude for the simplest possible 6-element model and five to seven orders of magnitude for an h-refined 24-element model) in the scattering cross section of a perfectly conducting sphere with a metamaterial cloak, in a broad range of wavelengths. Given the introduced explicit approximations in modeling of the spherical geometry and continuous material tensor profiles (both by fourth-order Lagrange interpolating functions), and inherent numerical approximations involved in the finite element and moment method techniques and codes, the cloaking effects are shown to be predicted rather accurately by the full-wave numerical analysis method.