Plasmonics

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 269–277

An Efficient Large-Area Grating Coupler for Surface Plasmon Polaritons

  • Stephan T. Koev
  • Amit Agrawal
  • Henri J. Lezec
  • Vladimir A. Aksyuk
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11468-011-9303-7

Cite this article as:
Koev, S.T., Agrawal, A., Lezec, H.J. et al. Plasmonics (2012) 7: 269. doi:10.1007/s11468-011-9303-7

Abstract

We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a periodic grating of shallow rectangular grooves in a metallic film with the goal of maximizing the coupling efficiency of an extended plane wave (PW) of visible or near-infrared light into a single surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode on a flat metal surface. A PW-to-SPP power conversion factor >45% is demonstrated at a wavelength of 780 nm, which exceeds by an order of magnitude the experimental performance of SPP grating couplers reported to date at any wavelength. Conversion efficiency is maximized by matching the dissipative SPP losses along the grating surface to the local coupling strength. This critical coupling condition is experimentally achieved by tailoring the groove depth and width using a focused ion beam.

Keywords

Grating couplerSurface plasmonOptimizationEfficiencyGold

Supplementary material

11468_2011_9303_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (76 kb)
ESM 1Figure S1 showing SPP decay length on gratings at 675 nm. Figure S2 showing the product of input and output grating efficiencies at 675 nm. Figure S3 showing input grating intensity profiles at 675 nm. (PDF 76 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephan T. Koev
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amit Agrawal
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Henri J. Lezec
    • 1
  • Vladimir A. Aksyuk
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Nanoscale Science and TechnologyNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  2. 2.Maryland NanocenterUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA