Large postliquefaction deformation of sand, part I: physical mechanism, constitutive description and numerical algorithm
 JianMin Zhang,
 Gang Wang
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This paper presents a theoretical framework for predicting the postliquefaction deformation of saturated sand under undrained cyclic loading with emphasis on the mechanical laws, physical mechanism, constitutive model and numerical algorithm as well as practical applicability. The revealing mechanism behind the complex behavior in the postliquefaction regime can be appreciated by decomposing the volumetric strain into three components with distinctive physical background. The interplay among these three components governs the postliquefaction shear deformation and characterizes three physical states alternating in the liquefaction process. This assumption sheds some light on the intricate transition from small preliquefaction deformation to large postliquefaction deformation and provides a rational explanation to the triggering of unstable flow slide and the postliquefaction reconsolidation. Based on this assumption, a constitutive model is developed within the framework of bounding surface plasticity. This model is capable of reproducing small to large deformation in the pre to postliquefaction regime. The model performance is confirmed by simulating laboratory tests. The constitutive model is implemented in a finite element code together with a robust numerical algorithm to circumvent numerical instability in the vicinity of vanishing effective stress. This numerical model is validated by fully coupled numerical analyses of two wellinstrumented dynamic centrifuge model tests. Finally, numerical simulation of liquefactionrelated site response is performed for the Daikai subway station damaged during the 1995 HyogokenNambu earthquake in Japan.
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 Title
 Large postliquefaction deformation of sand, part I: physical mechanism, constitutive description and numerical algorithm
 Journal

Acta Geotechnica
Volume 7, Issue 2 , pp 69113
 Cover Date
 20120601
 DOI
 10.1007/s1144001101507
 Print ISSN
 18611125
 Online ISSN
 18611133
 Publisher
 SpringerVerlag
 Additional Links
 Topics
 Keywords

 Centrifuge tests
 Constitutive model
 Earthquake
 Liquefaction
 Large deformation
 Numerical analysis
 Site response
 Industry Sectors
 Authors

 JianMin Zhang ^{(1)}
 Gang Wang ^{(2)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering/State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China
 2. Ertan Hydropower Development Company Limited, Chengdu, 610051, China