Passive earth pressure on embedded vertical plate anchors in sand
Authors
 First Online:
 Received:
 Accepted:
DOI: 10.1007/s1144001001090
 Cite this article as:
 Hanna, A., Rahman, F. & Ayadat, T. Acta Geotech. (2011) 6: 21. doi:10.1007/s1144001001090
Abstract
Passive earth pressure on embedded anchor plates constitutes a viable resisting force for the design of underground structures. In the current practice, these forces are empirically calculated, ignoring the effects of the depth of embedment and the level of consolidation of the surrounding soil, which takes place during plate installation on the in situ stress levels. Accordingly, wide discrepancies between predicted and measured pullout capacities of these plates were reported in the literature. Numerical model was developed using finiteelement technique and the constitutive law of Mohr–Coulomb to simulate the case of a retaining wall partially supported by an embedded anchor plate in sand. The results produced in this investigation showed that the passive earth pressure acting on anchor plates increases due to the increase of angle of shearing resistance and the overconsolidation ratio of sand, and it decreases due to an increase of the embedment depth of anchor. Design theories were developed for the case of embedded anchor plate in overconsolidated sand. The theories developed will satisfy the design needed in terms of allowable pullout load and/or displacement.
Keywords
Cohesionless soil Critical depth Displacement Overconsolidation ratio Passive earth pressure Plate anchors Pullout capacityList of symbols
 c

Cohesion
 H

Depth of embedment of anchor plate
 d _{eq}

Equivalent thickness of the plate material
 E

Young’s modulus of soil
 e _{ y }

Eccentricity
 EA

Axial stiffness
 EI

Flexural rigidity
 h _{CG}

Location of center of gravity from the top of the anchor plate
 H

Height of the retaining wall
 h _{ a }

Height of the anchor plate
 I

Moment of inertia
 K _{ p }

Coefficient of passive earth pressure
 K _{ o }

Coefficient of earth pressure at rest
 K _{p(NC)}

Coefficient of passive earth pressure for normally consolidated soil
 K _{p(OC)}

Coefficient of passive earth pressure for overconsolidated soil
 K _{ q }

Coefficient
 OCR

Overconsolidation ratio
 P _{ult}

Ultimate load
 R _{inter}

Strength reduction factor
 R

Reduction factor
 W

Weight of the plate material
 μ

Poisson’s ratio
 ψ

Angle of dilatancy
 Δ

Displacement
 φ

Angle of shearing resistance
 λ

Rotational angle of vertical anchor plate
 δ

Angle of wall soil friction
 τ

Shear strength of soil
 σ′

Principal effective stress