Distinctive characteristics and functions of multiple mitochondrial Ca2+ influx mechanisms
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- Pan, S., Ryu, SY. & Sheu, SS. Sci. China Life Sci. (2011) 54: 763. doi:10.1007/s11427-011-4203-9
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Intracellular Ca2+ is vital for cell physiology. Disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis contributes to human diseases such as heart failure, neuron-degeneration, and diabetes. To ensure an effective intracellular Ca2+ dynamics, various Ca2+ transport proteins localized in different cellular regions have to work in coordination. The central role of mitochondrial Ca2+ transport mechanisms in responding to physiological Ca2+ pulses in cytosol is to take up Ca2+ for regulating energy production and shaping the amplitude and duration of Ca2+ transients in various micro-domains. Since the discovery that isolated mitochondria can take up large quantities of Ca2+ approximately 5 decades ago, extensive studies have been focused on the functional characterization and implication of ion channels that dictate Ca2+ transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake sensitive to non-specific inhibitors ruthenium red and Ru360 has long been considered as the activity of mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU). The general consensus is that MCU is dominantly or exclusively responsible for the mitochondrial Ca2+ influx. Since multiple Ca2+ influx mechanisms (e.g. L-, T-, and N-type Ca2+ channel) have their unique functions in the plasma membrane, it is plausible that mitochondrial inner membrane has more than just MCU to decode complex intracellular Ca2+ signaling in various cell types. During the last decade, four molecular identities related to mitochondrial Ca2+ influx mechanisms have been identified. These are mitochondrial ryanodine receptor, mitochondrial uncoupling proteins, LETM1 (Ca2+/H+ exchanger), and MCU and its Ca2+ sensing regulatory subunit MICU1. Here, we briefly review recent progress in these and other reported mitochondrial Ca2+ influx pathways and their differences in kinetics, Ca2+ dependence, and pharmacological characteristics. Their potential physiological and pathological implications are also discussed.
Keywordsmitochondrial calcium channels calcium transport mitochondria heart ryanodine receptor
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