Regulation of embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation by TGF-β family signaling
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- Fei, T. & Chen, YG. Sci. China Life Sci. (2010) 53: 497. doi:10.1007/s11427-010-0096-2
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are characterized by their ability to indefinitely self-renew and potential to differentiate into all the cell lineages of the body. ES cells are considered to have potential applications in regenerative medicine. In particular, the emergence of an ES cell analogue — induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells via somatic cell reprogramming by co-expressing a limited number of critical stemness-related transcriptional factors has solved the problem of obtaining patient-specific pluripotent cells, encouraging researchers to develop more specific and functional cell lineages from ES or iPS cells for broad therapeutic applications. ES cell fate choice is delicately controlled by a core transcriptional network, epigenetic modification profiles and complex signaling cascades both intrinsically and extrinsically. Of these signals, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family members, including TGF-β, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Activin and Nodal, have been reported to influence cell self-renewal and a broad spectrum of lineage differentiation in ES cells, in accordance with the key roles of TGF-β family signaling in early embryo development. In this review, the roles of TGF-β family signals in coordinating ES cell fate determination are summarized.