Pictet-Spengler condensation reactions catalyzed by a recyclable H+-montmorillonite as a heterogeneous Brønsted acid
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- Wang, Y., Song, Z., Chen, C. et al. Sci. China Chem. (2010) 53: 562. doi:10.1007/s11426-010-0073-4
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Catalytic performance of different cation-exchanged montmorillonite clays has been investigated in the Pictet-Spengler C-C bond forming reaction. H+-Montmorillonite was found to be a very efficient and reusable catalyst for the endo cyclization of β-phenylethylamine derivatives with aldehydes under solvent-free conditions. In addition, an aqueous condensation version for the synthesis of tetrahydro-β-carbolines using the H+-montmorillonite catalyst has been developed. In these environmentally friendly processes, the use of organic solvents was avoided and the catalyst was recycled with maintenance of high catalytic activity.