Achilles, C. M., & Hoover, S. P. (1996, November). Exploring problem-based learning (PBL) in grades 6–12. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Mid-South Educational Research Association, Tuscaloosa, AL.
Albanese, M. (2000). Problem-based learning: Why curricula are likely to show little effect on knowledge and clinical skills. Medical Education,
Albanese, M. A., & Mitchell, S. (1993). Problem-based learning: A review of literature on its outcomes and implementation issues. Academic Medicine,
Angeli, C. (2002). Teachers’ practical theories for the design and implementation of problem-based learning. Science Education International,
Azer, S. A. (2001). Problem-based learning: Challenges, barriers, and outcome issues. Saudi Medical Journal,
Barrows, H. S. (1986). A taxonomy of problem-based learning methods. Medical Education,
Barrows, H. S. (1996). Problem-based learning in medicine and beyond: A brief overview. In L. Wilkerson & W. H. Gijselaers (Eds.), Bring problem-based learning to higher education: Theory and practice (pp. 3–12). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Barrows, H. S., & Tamblyn, R. M. (1980). Problem-based learning: An approach to medical education. New York: Springer.
Bartlett, F. C. (1968). Remembering. London: Cambridge University Press.
Belland, B. R., French, B., & Ertmer, P. A. (2009). Validity and problem-based learning research: A review of instruments used to assess intended learning outcomes. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning,
Berkson, L. (1993). Problem-based learning: Have the expectations been met? Academic Medicine,
Blumenfeld, P. C., Soloway, E., Marx, R. W., Krajcik, J. S., Guzdial, M., & Palincsar, A. (1991). Motivating project-based learning: Sustaining the doing, supporting the learning. Educational Psychologist,
Cermak, L. S., & Craik, F. I. M. (Eds.). (1979). Levels of processing in human memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Colliver, J. A. (2000). Effectiveness of problem-based learning curricula: Research and theory. Academic Medicine,
Coulson, R. L., & Osborne, C. E. (1984). Insuring curricular content in a student-directed problem-based learning program. In H. G. Schmidt & M. L. de Volder (Eds.), Tutorial in problem-based learning program (pp. 225–229). Assen: Van Gorcum.
Dabbagh, N., & Denisar, K. (2005). Assessing team-based instructional design problem solutions of hierarchical versus heterarchical web-based hypermedia cases. Educational Technology Research and Development,
Dabbagh, N. H., Jonassen, D. H., Yueh, H.-P., & Samouilova, M. (2000). Assessing a problem-based learning approach to an introductory instructional design course: A case study. Performance Improvement Quarterly,
Dabbagh, N., & Williams-Blijd, C. (2010). Students’ perceptions of their learning experiences in an authentic instructional design context. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning,
De Grave, W. S., Boshuizen, H. P. A., & Schmidt, H. G. (1996). Problem-based learning: Cognitive and metacognitive processes during problem analysis. Instructional Science,
Dillenbourg, P., Baker, M., Blaye, A., & O’Malley, C. (1996). The evolution of research on collaborative learning. In E. Spada & P. Reiman (Eds.), Learning in humans and machine: Towards an interdisciplinary learning science (pp. 189–211). Oxford: Elsevier.
Dods, R. F. (1997). An action research study of the effectiveness of problem-based learning in promoting the acquisition and retention of knowledge. Journal for the Education of the Gifted,
Dolmans, D. H. J. M., Gijselaers, W. H., Schmidt, H. G., & van der Meer, S. B. (1993). Problem effectiveness in a course using problem-based learning. Academic Medicine,
Dolmans, D. H. J. M., & Schmidt, H. G. (1994). What drives the student in problem-based learning? Medical Education,
Dolmans, D. H. J. M., Wolfhagen, I. H. A. P., van der Vleuten, C. P. M., & Wijnen, W. H. F. W. (2001). Solving problems with group work in problem-based learning: Hold on to the philosophy. Medical Education,
Duffy, T. M., & Cunningham, D. J. (1996). Constructivism: Implications for the design and delivery of instruction. In D. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (pp. 170–198). New York: Macmillan.
Ertmer, P. A., Glazewski, K. D., Jones, D., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A., Goktas, Y., Collins, K., et al. (2009). Facilitating technology-enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) in the middle school classroom: An examination of how and why teachers adapt. Journal of Interactive Learning Research,
Ertmer, P. A., & Simons, K. D. (2006). Jumping the PBL implementation hurdle: Supporting the efforts of K-12 teachers. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning,
Farnsworth, C. (1994). Using computer simulations in problem-based learning. In M. Orey (Ed.), Proceedings of the thirty-fifth ADCIS conference (pp. 137–140). Nashville, TN: Omni Press.
Feletti, G., Saunders, N., Smith, A., & Engel, C. (1984). Assessment of independent learning. Medical Teacher,
Fiddler, M. B., & Knoll, J. W. (1995). Problem-based learning in an adult liberal learning context: Learner adaptations and feedback. Continuing Higher Education Review,
Gijselaers, W. H., & Schmidt, H. G. (1990). Development and evaluation of a causal model of problem-based learning. In Z. H. Nooman, H. G. Schmidt, & E. S. Ezzat (Eds.), Innovation in medical education, an evaluation of its present status (pp. 95–113). New York: Springer Publishing.
Glew, R. H. (2003). The problem with problem-based medical education: Promises not kept. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education,
Goodnough, K., & Hung, W. (2008). Designing effective problems: Evaluation of 3C3R 9-step design process. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning,
Harden, R. M., & Davis, M. H. (1998). The continuum of problem-based learning. Medical Teacher,
Hitchcock, M. A., & Anderson, A. S. (1997). Dealing with dysfunctional tutorial groups. Teaching and Learning in Medicine,
Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review,
Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Duncan, R. G., & Chinn, C. A. (2007). Scaffolding and achievement in problem-based and inquiry learning: A response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist,
Hoffman, B., & Ritchie, D. (1997). Using multimedia to overcome the problems with problem based learning. Instructional Science,
Hung, W. (2006). The 3C3R model: A conceptual framework for designing problems in PBL. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning,
Hung, W. (2009). The 9-step process for designing PBL problems: Application of the 3C3R model. Educational Research Review,
Hung, W. Mehl, K., & Holen, J. B. (under review). Problem types and student learning in PBL: Two cases. Teaching in Higher Education.
Jonassen, D. H. (1991). Objectivism versus constructivism: Do we need a new philosophical paradigm. Educational Technology Research and Development,
Jonassen, D. H. (1992). Evaluating constructivist learning. In T. M. Duffy & D. H. Jonassen (Eds.), Constructivism and the technology of instruction: A conversation (pp. 137–148). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Jonassen, D. H. (1997). Instructional design models for well-structured and ill-structured problem-solving learning outcomes. Educational Technology Research and Development,
Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Toward a design theory of problem solving. Educational Technology Research and Development,
Jonassen, D. H., & Hung, W. (2008). All problems are not equal: Implications for PBL. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning,
Kaufman, D. M. (2000). Problem-based learning: Time to step back? Medical Education,
Kindler, P., Grant, C., Kulla, S., Poole, G., & Godolphin, W. (2009). Difficult incidents and tutor interventions in problem-based learning tutorials. Medical Education, 43
Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist,
Koh, G. C.-H., Khoo, H. E., Wong, M. L., & Koh, D. (2008). The effects of problem-based learning during medical school on physician competency: A systematic review. Canadian Medical Association Journal,
Kolodner, J. L., Camp, P. J., Crismond, D., Fasse, B., Gray, J., Holbrook, J., et al. (2003). Problem-based learning meets case-based reasoning in the middle-school science classroom: Putting Learning by Design™ into practice. The Journal of the Learning Sciences,
Krajcik, J. S., Blumenfeld, P. C., Marx, R. W., Bass, K. M., Fredericks, J., & Soloway, E. (1998). Middle school students’ initial attempts at inquiry in project-based science classrooms. Journal of Learning Sciences,
Lieux, E. M. (2001). A skeptic’s look at PBL. In B. Duch, S. E. Groh, & D. E. Allen (Eds.), The power of problem-based learning: A practical “how to” for teaching undergraduate courses in any discipline (pp. 223–235). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Maxwell, N. L., Bellisimo, Y., & Mergendoller, J. (2001). Problem-based learning: Modifying the medical school model for teaching high school economics. The Social Studies,
McMillan, J. H., & Schumacher, S. (2001). Research in education: A conceptual introduction. New York: Longman.
Moust, J. H. C., van Berkel, H. J. M., & Schmidt, H. G. (2005). Signs of erosion: Reflections on three decades of problem-based learning at Maastricht University. Higher Education,
Murphy, L. B., & McPherson, J. (1989). The group assessment task: A real time test of small group problem based learning. In B. Wallis (Ed.), Problem based learning; the newcastle workshop (pp. 131–143). Newcastle: University of Newcastle Faculty of Medicine.
Neville, A. J. (2009). Problem-based learning and medical education forth years on. Medical Principles and Practice,
Norman, G., & Schmidt, H. G. (1992). The psychological basis of problem-based learning: A review of the evidence. Academic Medicine,
O’Neill, P. A. (2000). The role of basic sciences in a problem-based learning clinical curriculum. Medical Education,
Oberski, I. M., Matthews-Smith, G., Gary, M., & Carter, D. E. (2004). Assessing problem-based learning with practice portfolios: One innovation too many? Innovations in Education and Teaching International,
Pea, R. D. (2004). The social and technological dimensions scaffolding and related theoretical concepts for learning, education, and human activity. The Journal of the Learning Sciences,
Pedersen, S., & Liu, M. (2003). Teachers’ beliefs about issues in the implementation of a student-centered learning environment. ETR&D, 51
Perkins, D. N., & Grotzer, T. A. (2000, April). Models and moves: Focusing on dimensions of causal complexity to achieve deeper scientific understanding. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association annual conference, New Orleans, LA (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 441 698).
Perrenet, J. C., Bouhuijs, P. A. J., & Smits, J. G. M. M. (2000). The suitability of problem-based learning for engineering education: Theory and practice. Teaching in Higher Education,
Roschelle, J., & Teasley, S. (1995). The construction of shared knowledge in collaborative problem solving. In C. O’Malley (Ed.), Computer supported collaborative learning (pp. 69–197). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Rose, L. P. (2001, April). Understanding how PBL teams work: Re-thinking the dimensions of teamwork. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, April 10–14, 2001.
Rothman, A. I. (2000). Problem-based learning: Time to move forward? Medical Education,
Savery, R. J. (2006). Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and distinctions. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning,
Schmidt, H. G. (1983). Problem-based learning: Rationale and description. Medical Education,
Schmidt, H. G. (2000). Assumptions underlying self-directed learning may be false. Medical Education,
Schmidt, H. G., Boshuizen, H. P. A., & de Vries, M. (1992). Comparing problem-based with conventional education: A review of the University of Limburg medical school experiment. Annals of Community-Oriented Education,
Schmidt, H. G., Loyens, S. M. M., van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2007). Problem-based learning is compatible with human cognitive architecture: Commentary on Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist,
Schultz-Ross, R. A., & Kline, A. E. (1999). Using problem-based learning to teach forensic psychiatry. Academic Psychiatry,
Schwartz, P., Stewart, M., & Webb, G. (2001). Problem-based learning: Case studies, experience and practice. London: Kogan Page.
Simons, K. D., & Ertmer, P. A. (2005). Scaffolding disciplined inquiry in problem-based environments. International Journal of Learning,
Simons, K. D., Klein, J. D., & Brush, T. R. (2004). Instructional strategies utilized during the implementation of a hypermedia, problem-based learning environment: A case study. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(3), 213–233.
Smith, R. M. (1993). The triple jump examination as an assessment tool in the problem-based medical curriculum at the University of Hawaii. Academic Medicine,
Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design. San Francisco: Wiley.
Spronken-Smith, R., & Harland, T. (2009). Learning to teaching with problem-based learning. Active Learning in Higher Education,
Steinert, Y. (2004). Student perceptions of effective small group teaching. Medical Education,
Stillings, N. A. (1995). Cognitive psychology: The architecture of the mind. In N. A. Stillings & S. E. Weisler (Eds.), Cognitive science (pp. 15–86). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Strobel, J., & van Barneveld, A. (2009). When is PBL more effective: A meta-synthesis of meta-analyses comparing PBL to conventional classrooms. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning,
Sweller, J. (1999). Instructional design in technical areas. Melbourne: ACER.
Taylor, D., & Miflin, B. (2008). Problem-based learning: Where are we now? Medical Teacher,
van der Vleuten, C. P. M., & Swanson, D. B. (1990). Assessment of clinical skills with standardized patients: State of the art. Teaching and Learning in Medicine,
van Gessel, E., Nendaz, M. R., Vermeulen, B., Junod, A., & Vu, N. V. (2003). Basic science development of clinical reasoning from the basic sciences to the clerkships: A longitudinal assessment of medical students’ needs and self-perception after a transitional learning unit. Medical Education,
Van Merrienböer, J. J. G., Kester, L., & Paas, F. (2006). Teaching complex rather than simple tasks: Balancing intrinsic and germane load to enhance transfer of learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology,
Vardi, I., & Ciccarelli, M. (2008). Overcoming problems in problem-based learning: A trial of strategies in an undergraduate unit. Innovations in Education and Teaching International,
Vernon, D. T. A., & Blake, R. L. (1993). Does problem-based learning work: A meta-analysis of evaluative research. Academic Medicine,
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wells, S. H., Warelow, P. J., & Jackson, K. L. (2009). Problem based learning (PBL); A conundrum. Contemporary Nurse,
Wilkerson, L., & Gijselaers, W. H. (1996). Concluding comments. New Directions for Teaching and Learning,
Wood, T. J., Cunnington, J. P. W., & Norman, G. R. (2000). Assessing the measurement properties of a clinical reasoning exercise. Teaching and Learning in Medicine,
Zimitat, C., & Miflin, B. (2003). Using assessment to induct students and staff into the PBL tutorial process. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education,