Research article

Educational Technology Research and Development

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 223-252

First online:

Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

  • Khe Foon HewAffiliated withLearning Sciences and Technology Academic Group, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University Email author 
  • , Thomas BrushAffiliated withInstructional Systems Technology, Indiana University

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Although research studies in education show that use of technology can help student learning, its use is generally affected by certain barriers. In this paper, we first identify the general barriers typically faced by K-12 schools, both in the United States as well as other countries, when integrating technology into the curriculum for instructional purposes, namely: (a) resources, (b) institution, (c) subject culture, (d) attitudes and beliefs, (e) knowledge and skills, and (f) assessment. We then describe the strategies to overcome such barriers: (a) having a shared vision and technology integration plan, (b) overcoming the scarcity of resources, (c) changing attitudes and beliefs, (d) conducting professional development, and (e) reconsidering assessments. Finally, we identify several current knowledge gaps pertaining to the barriers and strategies of technology integration, and offer pertinent recommendations for future research.


Technology integration Barriers Strategies K-12 Curriculum Future research