, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 679-692
Date: 29 Dec 2010

Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges

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Abstract

An innovative school science curriculum in South Africa requires the inclusion of African societal/cultural knowledge, such as indigenous knowledge (IK). The main project involves introducing argumentation to accomplish this requirement. We used a focus group plus critical incident technique to ascertain nine teachers’ understandings of argumentation and IK, their perceptions of how argumentation helps in teaching IK, examples of how argumentation-teaching had (or had not) worked in their classrooms, and their suggestions. Our results show that the teachers accepted argumentation as a viable approach to teach science and introduce IK into their classrooms.

Executive Summary

IiNgcali kwezemfundo, ehlabathini jikelele, ziya qala ukuwaqonda ngoku amaseko emfundo engenamkhethe, edlelana nabantwana ezikolweni; yiyo loonto zinomdla ngokona kwimfundo engqinelana nolwazi lwezemvelo. Ikharityhulamu entsha nehlaziyiweyo yoMzantsi Afrika icebisa ukuba abafundi bafundiswe isixa esimashumi mathathu ekhulwini (30%) kwezeNzululwazi ngokungqinelana nendlela yolwazi oluphuma kwizithethe nobugcisa bakwaNtu. Oku kungumcelimngeni kubafundisi-ntsapho (ootishala) abangenalwazi lwezemvelo olufana nolo lwabafundi babo okanye ukuba banalo, bangaluhlomelela njani ezifundweni zabo. Injongo yolu phando lwethu kukubona ukuba aba bafundisi-ntsapho benze mqela mni na ekufundiseni unzululwazi ngale ndlela, iziziphina iindawo abaxinge kuzo. Xa bekusetyenziswa intlanganisela yendlela yodliwano-ndlebe lwamaqela (ifokhas-gruphu) kwakunye nendlela yodliwano-ndlebe locikido (ikhrithikhal-insidenti), abafundisi-ntsapho abalithoba (abenza izifundo zophando kumabakala ezidanga zembeko nangaphezulu) bebexoxa: malunga nabakwaziyo ngendlela yokuxoxa ekuthiwa yimvunyelwano-mpikiswana (i-adyumenteyishini) kwakunye nolwazi lwezemvelo (i-indijinas noleji); izimvo zabo malunga nendlela ingxoxo-mpikiswano ethi incede ngayo ekufundise ngolwazi lwezemvelo; imizekelo apho ingxoxo-mpikiswano ethe yabanokunceda (okanye ayanceda) kumagumbi okufundisa (iiklasi); kwakunye nezimvo zabo ngabakucingela ukuba kusafuneke kwenziwe ekwenzeni indlela yemvunyelwano-mpikiswano ibenokusebenza ngokunempumelelo. Imvunyelwano-mpikiswano yaye yamkeleka njengendlela yokufundisa enako ukwenzeka ngempumelelo. Iimiceli-mngeni engundoqo yaquka: isidingo sokuba abafundi babenezakhono zokusetyenziswa kolwimi namava emvelo; isidingo sokuba kongezelelwe ixesha lokufundisa; isidingo sophuhliso-mava ngakumbi kwicala lweendlela zokufundisa; isidingo sokuphuhliswa kwekharityhulamu ngendlela efanelekileyo; kwakunye nenkxaso yabathabathi-nxaxheba kwezemfundo. Kwaye kwabakho nenkxalabo emalunga nendlela yokufundisa imvunyelwisano-mpikiswano ukuba iyingendlela yokufundisi esisixhobo sezenzululwazi lwasentshona na okanye indlela kawonke-wonke yokuxoxa equka iindlela zolwazi lwezemvelo zesi-Afrika. Abathabathi-nxaxheba baye babonisa uchulumanco malunga nokusetyenziswa kwemvunyelwano-mpikiswano ngengendlela yokufundisa ezenzululwazi kwakunye nokuhlonyelwa kolwazi lwezemvelo kwizifundo zenzululwazi emagumbini okufundisa (eziklasini).