Finite Element Analysis Examining the Effects of Cam FAI on Hip Joint Mechanical Loading Using Subject-Specific Geometries During Standing and Maximum Squat
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can impose elevated mechanical loading in the hip, potentially leading to an eventual mechanical failure of the joint. Since in vivo data on the pathomechanisms of FAI are limited, it is still unclear how this deformity leads to osteoarthritis.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cam FAI on hip joint mechanical loading using finite element analysis, by incorporating subject-specific geometries, kinematics, and kinetics.
The research objectives were to address and determine: (1) if hips with cam FAI demonstrate higher maximum shear stresses, in comparison with control hips; (2) the magnitude of the peak maximum shear stresses; and (3) the locations of the peak maximum shear stresses.
Using finite element analysis, two patient models were control-matched and simulated during quasi-static positions from standing to squatting. Intersegmental hip forces, from a previous study, were applied to the subject-specific hip geometries, segmented from CT data, to evaluate the maximum shear stresses on the acetabular cartilage and underlying bone.
Peak maximum shear stresses were found at the anterosuperior region of the underlying bone during squatting. The peaks at the anterosuperior acetabulum were substantially higher for the patients (15.2 ± 1.8 MPa) in comparison with the controls (4.5 ± 0.1 MPa).
Peaks were not situated on the cartilage, but instead located on the underlying bone. The results correspond with the locations of initial cartilage degradation observed during surgical treatment and from MRI.
These findings support the pathomechanism of cam FAI. Changes may originate from the underlying subchondral bone properties rather than direct shear stresses to the articular cartilage.
- Anderson AE, Ellis BJ, Maas SA, Peters CL, Weiss JA. Validation of finite element predictions of cartilage contact pressure in the human hip joint. J Biomech Eng. 2008;130(5):051008. CrossRef
- Anderson AE, Ellis BJ, Maas SA, Weiss JA. Effects of idealized joint geometry on finite element predictions of cartilage contact stresses in the hip. J Biomech. 2010;43(7):1351–7. CrossRef
- Arbabi E, Boulic R, Thalmann D. Fast collision detection methods for joint surfaces. J Biomech. 2009;42(2):91–9. CrossRef
- Aritan S, Dabnichki P, Bartlett R. Program for generation of three-dimensional finite element mesh from magnetic resonance imaging scans of human limbs. Med Eng Phys. 1997;19(8):681–9. CrossRef
- Ateshian GA, Ellis BJ, Weiss JA. Equivalence between short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic material responses. J Biomech Eng. 2007;129(3):405–12. CrossRef
- Beaule PE, Zaragoza E, Motamedi K, Copelan N, Dorey FJ. Three-dimensional computed tomography of the hip in the assessment of femoroacetabular impingement. J Orthop Res. 2005;23(6):1286–92.
- Beck M, Kalhor M, Leunig M, Ganz R. Hip morphology influences the pattern of damage to the acetabular cartilage: femoroacetabular impingement as a cause of early osteoarthritis of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg. 2005;87(7):1012–8. CrossRef
- Buchanan TS, Lloyd DG, Manal K, Besier TF. Estimation of muscle forces and joint moments using a forward-inverse dynamics model. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(11):1911–6. CrossRef
- Chegini S, Beck M, Ferguson SJ. The effects of impingement and dysplasia on stress distributions in the hip joint during sitting and walking: a finite element analysis. J Orthop Res. 2009;27(2):195–201. CrossRef
- Clohisy JC, McClure JT. Treatment of anterior femoroacetabular impingement with combined hip arthroscopy and limited anterior decompression. Iowa Orthop J. 2005;25:164–71.
- Couteau B, Hobatho MC, Darmana R, Brignola JC, Arlaud JY. Finite element modelling of the vibrational behaviour of the human femur using CT-based individualized geometrical and material properties. J Biomech. 1998;31(4):383–6. CrossRef
- Day JS, Van Der Linden JC, Bank RA, Ding M, Hvid I, Sumner DR, et al. Adaptation of subchondral bone in osteoarthritis. Biorheology. 2004;41(3–4):359–68.
- Ferguson SJ, Bryant JT, Ganz R, Ito K. The acetabular labrum seal: a poroelastic finite element model. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2000;15(6):463–8. CrossRef
- Ferguson SJ, Bryant JT, Ganz R, Ito K. The influence of the acetabular labrum on hip joint cartilage consolidation: a poroelastic finite element model. J Biomech. 2000;33(8):953–60. CrossRef
- Ganz R, Leunig M, Leunig-Ganz K, Harris WH. The etiology of osteoarthritis of the hip: an integrated mechanical concept. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466(2):264–72. CrossRef
- Ganz R, Parvizi J, Beck M, Leunig M, Notzli H, Siebenrock KA. Femoroacetabular impingement: a cause for osteoarthritis of the hip. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003;417:112–20.
- Gilbert JL. Complexity in modeling of residual stresses and strains during polymerization of bone cement: effects of conversion, constraint, heat transfer, and viscoelastic property changes. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006;79(4):999–1014.
- Gosvig KK, Jacobsen S, Sonne-Holm S, Gebuhr P. The prevalence of cam-type deformity of the hip joint: A survey of 4151 subjects of the copenhagen osteoarthritis study. Acta Radiologica. 2008;49(4):436–41. CrossRef
- Henak CR, Ellis BJ, Harris MD, Anderson AE, Peters CL, Weiss JA. Role of the acetabular labrum in load support across the hip joint. J Biomech. 2011;44(12):2201–6. CrossRef
- Hlavacek M. The thixotropic effect of the synovial fluid in squeeze-film lubrication of the human hip joint. Biorheology. 2001;38(4):319–34.
- Huiskes R, Ruimerman R, van Lenthe GH, Janssen JD. Effects of mechanical forces on maintenance and adaptation of form in trabecular bone. Nature. 2000;405(6787):704–6. CrossRef
- Ito K, Minka MA, 2nd, Leunig M, Werlen S, Ganz R. Femoroacetabular impingement and the cam-effect. A MRI-based quantitative anatomical study of the femoral head-neck offset. J Bone Joint Surg. 2001;83(2):171–6. CrossRef
- Johnson GA, Tramaglini DM, Levine RE, Ohno K, Choi NY, Woo SL. Tensile and viscoelastic properties of human patellar tendon. J Orthop Res. 1994;12(6):796–803. CrossRef
- Kadaba MP, Ramakrishnan HK, Wootten ME. Measurement of lower extremity kinematics during level walking. J Orthop Res. 1990;8(3):383–92. CrossRef
- Konrath GA, Hamel AJ, Olson SA, Bay B, Sharkey NA. The role of the acetabular labrum and the transverse acetabular ligament in load transmission in the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1998;80(12):1781–8.
- Lamontagne M, Kennedy MJ, Beaule PE. The effect of cam FAI on hip and pelvic motion during maximum squat. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467(3):645–50. CrossRef
- Leunig M, Beaule PE, Ganz R. The concept of femoroacetabular impingement: current status and future perspectives. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467(3):616–22. CrossRef
- Leunig M, Beck M, Dora C, Ganz R. Femoroacetabular Impingement: Etiology and Surgical Concept. Oper Tech Orthop. 2005;15:247–55. CrossRef
- Lloyd DG, Buchanan TS, Besier TF. Neuromuscular biomechanical modeling to understand knee ligament loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(11):1939–47. CrossRef
- Luo Y. 3D Nearest-Nodes Finite Element Method for Solid Continuum Analysis. Adv Theor Appl Mech. 2008;1(3):131–9.
- Macirowski T, Tepic S, Mann RW. Cartilage stresses in the human hip joint. J Biomech Eng. 1994;116(1):10–8. CrossRef
- Manal K, Gonzalez RV, Lloyd DG, Buchanan TS. A real-time EMG-driven virtual arm. Comput Biol Med. 2002;32(1):25–36. CrossRef
- Murphy MJ. The importance of computed tomography slice thickness in radiographic patient positioning for radiosurgery. Med Phys. 1999;26(2):171–5. CrossRef
- Myers SR, Eijer H, Ganz R. Anterior femoroacetabular impingement after periacetabular osteotomy. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999;(363):93–9. CrossRef
- Notzli HP, Wyss TF, Stoecklin CH, Schmid MR, Treiber K, Hodler J. The contour of the femoral head-neck junction as a predictor for the risk of anterior impingement. J Bone Joint Surg. 2002;84(4):556–60. CrossRef
- Radin EL, Paul IL, Tolkoff MJ. Subchondral bone changes in patients with early degenerative joint disease. Arthritis Rheum. 1970;13(4):400–5. CrossRef
- Radin EL, Rose RM. Role of subchondral bone in the initiation and progression of cartilage damage. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986;(213):34–40.
- Russell ME, Shivanna KH, Grosland NM, Pedersen DR. Cartilage contact pressure elevations in dysplastic hips: a chronic overload model. J Orthop Surg Res. 2006;1:6. CrossRef
- Shaffer E, Garland M. A multiresolution representation for massive meshes. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph. 2005;11(2):139–48. CrossRef
- Siebenrock KA, Wahab KH, Werlen S, Kalhor M, Leunig M, Ganz R. Abnormal extension of the femoral head epiphysis as a cause of cam impingement. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004;(418):54–60. CrossRef
- Tannast M, Siebenrock KA, Anderson SE. Femoroacetabular impingement: radiographic diagnosis--what the radiologist should know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(6):1540–52. CrossRef
- Vahdati A, Rouhi G. A model for mechanical adaptation of trabecular bone incorporating cellular accommodation and effects of microdamage and disuse. Mech Res Comm. 2009;36(3):284–293.
- Wei HW, Sun SS, Jao SH, Yeh CR, Cheng CK. The influence of mechanical properties of subchondral plate, femoral head and neck on dynamic stress distribution of the articular cartilage. Med Eng Phys. 2005;27(4):295–304. CrossRef
- Yoshida H, Faust A, Wilckens J, Kitagawa M, Fetto J, Chao EY. Three-dimensional dynamic hip contact area and pressure distribution during activities of daily living. J Biomech. 2006;39(11):1996–2004. CrossRef
- Finite Element Analysis Examining the Effects of Cam FAI on Hip Joint Mechanical Loading Using Subject-Specific Geometries During Standing and Maximum Squat
HSS Journal ®
Volume 8, Issue 3 , pp 206-212
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- cam femoroacetabular impingement
- finite element analysis
- finite element model
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
- 2. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
- 3. School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada
- 4. Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada