Raga, D.D., Espiritu, R.A., Shen, CC. et al. J Nat Med (2011) 65: 206. doi:10.1007/s11418-010-0459-9
A dichloromethane extract of the air-dried leaves of Bixa orellana afforded ishwarane 1, phytol 2, polyprenol 3, and a mixture of stigmasterol 4a and sitosterol 4b by silica gel chromatography. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Compound 1 at three doses (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg BW) was tested for prophylactic, gastrointestinal motility, analgesic, hypoglycemic, and antimicrobial potentials. Results of the prophylactic assay demonstrated the anti-toxic property of 1 at 100 mg/kg BW. A 50 mg/kg BW dose of 1 resulted in a more propulsive movement of the gastrointestinal tract (88.38 ± 13.59%) compared to the negative control (78.47 ± 10.61%). Tail flick and acetic acid writhing tests indicated that 100 mg/kg BW 1 had minimal analgesic activity. Compound 1 demonstrated no hypoglycemic potential on the animals tested. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans, low activity against T. mentagrophytes, and low antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. It was inactive against B. subtilis and A. niger.