Alternative assessment of strategy use with self-report instruments: a discussion
- Marcel V. J. Veenman
- … show all 1 hide
Strategy use is a very broad term for controlled and consciously applied procedural knowledge, in contrast with skills that are automated to a more or lesser extent (Gagné et al. 1993). Both terms, however, are used interchangeably when referring to processes that direct and support problem solving and learning. There is a gray area in between controlled strategy use and the automated performance of skills (Veenman 2011). For instance, monitoring processes may be consciously applied during reading, but often run in the background until an error or anomaly is detected. The latter is the case with more experienced readers. In this special issue, many of the strategic processes described operate in this gray area. For instance, confidence judgments or inference processes are neither fully controlled, nor fully automated. Consequently, learners may not be fully aware of ongoing processes, which may affect the verbalization of these processes in self-reports.
Strategic processes may be cogni
- Beijk, J. (1977). Convergerend operationalisme: een dwingende strategie voor de gedragswetenschappen. [Convergent operationalism: a compelling strategy for behavioral sciences]. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie, 32, 173–185.
- De Groot, A. D. (1969). Methodology, foundations of inference and research in the behavioral sciences. The Hague: Mouton.
- Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol analysis. Cambridge: MIT Press.
- Gagné, E. D., Yekovich, C. W., & Yekovich, F. R. (1993). The cognitive psychology of school learning (2nd ed.). New York: HarperCollins.
- Guilford, J. P. (1965). Fundamental statistics in psychology and education. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Nelson, T. O. (1996). Consciousness and metacognition. American Psychologist, 51, 102–116. CrossRef
- Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). Telling more than we know: verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84, 231–259. CrossRef
- Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated leaning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33–40. CrossRef
- Veenman, M. V. J. (2005). The assessment of metacognitive skills: What can be learned from multi-method designs? In C. Artelt & B. Moschner (Eds.), Lernstrategien und Metakognition: Implikationen für Forschung und Praxis (pp. 77–99). Münster: Waxmann.
- Veenman, M. V. J. (2007). The assessment and instruction of self-regulation in computer-based environments: a discussion. Metacognition and Learning, 2, 177–183. CrossRef
- Veenman, M. V. J. (2011). Learning to self-monitor and self-regulate. In R. Mayer & P. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of research on learning and instruction (pp. 197–218). New York: Routledge.
- Veenman, M. V. J. (in press). Assessing metacognitive skills in computerized learning environments. In R. Azevedo & V. Aleven (Eds.), International handbook of metacognition and learning technologies. New York/Berlin: Springer.
- Veenman, M. V. J., Kerseboom, L., & Imthorn, C. (2000). Test anxiety and metacognitive skillfulness: availability versus production deficiencies. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 13, 391–412. CrossRef
- Veenman, M. V. J., Prins, F. J., & Verheij, J. (2003). Learning styles: self-reports versus thinking-aloud measures. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 357–372. CrossRef
- Veenman, M. V. J., Kok, R., & Blöte, A. W. (2005). The relation between intellectual and metacognitive skills at the onset of metacognitive skill development. Instructional Science, 33, 193–211. CrossRef
- Veenman, M. V. J., Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M., & Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learning: conceptual and methodological considerations. Metacognition and Learning, 1, 3–14. CrossRef
- Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1990). Student differences in self-regulated learning: relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 51–59. CrossRef
- Alternative assessment of strategy use with self-report instruments: a discussion
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Metacognition and Learning
Volume 6, Issue 2 , pp 205-211
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, Leiden University—Institute for Psychological Research, Wassenaarseweg 52, 2333AK, Leiden, The Netherlands