, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 87-95

Theoretical, conceptual, methodological, and instructional issues in research on metacognition and self-regulated learning: A discussion

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Learning typically involves the use of numerous self-regulatory processes such as planning, knowledge activation, metacognitive monitoring and regulation, and reflection (Azevedo 2009; Azevedo and Hadwin 2005; Graesser et al. 2005; Schraw 2006; Veenman et al. 2006; Zimmerman 2008). According to Pintrich (2000), self-regulated learning (SRL) is an active, constructive process whereby students set goals for their learning and then attempt to monitor, regulate, and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior guided and constrained by their goals and the contextual features in the environment. Most models of SRL propose a general time-ordered sequence that students follow as they perform a task, but there is no strong assumption that the various phases (such as planning, monitoring, control) are hierarchically or linearly structured such that earlier phases must occur before later phases (see Ainley and Patrick 2006; Azevedo and Witherspoon 2009; Boekaerts et al. 2000; Bu