, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 461-474

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Foreknowledge, Freedom, and the Fixity of the Past

  • John Martin FischerAffiliated withDepartment of Philosophy, University of California, Riverside Email author 


I seek to clarify the notion of the fixity of the past appropriate to Pike’s regimentation of the argument for the incompatibility of God’s foreknowledge and human freedom. Also, I discuss Alvin Plantinga’s famous example of Paul and the Ant Colony in light of Pike’s argument.


God’s foreknowledge Human freedom Pike Plantinga Paul and the Ant Colony