Date: 01 Mar 2009
Improved Bounded Model Checking for the Universal Fragment of CTL
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
SAT-based bounded model checking (BMC) has been introduced as a complementary technique to BDD-based symbolic model checking in recent years, and a lot of successful work has been done in this direction. The approach was first introduced by A. Biere et al. in checking linear temporal logic (LTL) formulae and then also adapted to check formulae of the universal fragment of computation tree logic (ACTL) by W. Penczek et al. As the efficiency of model checking is still an important issue, we present an improved BMC approach for ACTL based on Penczek’s method. We consider two aspects of the approach. One is reduction of the number of variables and transitions in the k-model by distinguishing the temporal operator EX from the others. The other is simplification of the transformation of formulae by using uniform path encoding instead of a disjunction of all paths needed in the k-model. With these improvements, for an ACTL formula, the length of the final encoding of the formula in the worst case is reduced. The improved approach is implemented in the tool BMV and is compared with the original one by applying both to two well known examples, mutual exclusion and dining philosophers. The comparison shows the advantages of the improved approach with respect to the efficiency of model checking.
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 60573012 and No. 60721061, and the National Basic Research 973 Program of China under Grant No. 2002CB312200.
Biere A, Cimatti A, Clarke E, Fujita M, Zhu Y. Symbolic model checking using SAT procedures instead of BDDs. In Proc. DAC, New Orleans, LA, USA, June 21–25, 1999, pp.317–320.
Biere A, Cimatti A, Clarke E, Zhu Y. Symbolic model checking without BDDs. In Proc. TACAS, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, March 22–28, 1999, pp.193–207.
Biere A, Clarke E, Raimi R, Zhu Y. Verifying safety properties of a Power PC microprocessor using symbolic model checking without BDDs. In Proc. CAV, Trento, Italy, July 6–10, 1999, pp.60–71.
Copty F, Fix L, Fraer R, Giunchiglia E, Kamhi G, Tacchella A, Vardi M Y. Benefits of bounded model checking at an industrial setting. In Proc. CAV, Paris, France, July 18–22, 2001, pp.436–453.
Jain H, Bartzis C, Clarke E M. Satisfiability checking of non-clausal formulas using general matings. In Proc. SAT, Seattle, WA, USA, August 12–15, 2006, pp.75–89.
Clarke E M, Grunberg O, Peled D A. Model Checking. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The MIT Press, 1999.
Pieprzyk J, Cheng Xin Qu. Rotation-symmetric functions and fast hashing. In Proc. ACISP, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, July 1998, pp.169–180.
Eén N, Sörensson N. An extensible SAT-solver. In Proc. SAT, Santa Margherita Ligure, Italy, May 5–8, 2003, pp.502–518.
Eén N, Sörensson N. Effective preprocessing in SAT through variable and clause elimination. In Proc. SAT, St. Andrews, UK, June 19–23, 2005, pp.61–75.
Eén N, Sörensson N. Temporal induction by incremental SAT solving. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 2003, 89(4): 543–560.CrossRef
Xu Y, Chen W, Xu L, Zhang W. Evaluation of SAT-based bounded model checking of ACTL properties. In Proc. TASE, Shanghai, China, June 5–8, 2007, pp.339–348.
Zhang W. Verification of ACTL properties by bounded model checking. In Proc. EUROCAST, Gran Canaria, Spain, February 12–16, 2007, pp.199–202.
Peled D A. Software Reliability Methods. New York: Springer, USA, 2001.MATH
Zhou C, Ding D. Improved SAT based bounded model checking. In Proc. TAMC, Beijing, China, May 15–20, 2006, pp.611–620.
Penczek W, WoŸna B, Zbrzezny A. Towards bounded model checking for the universal fragment of TCTL. In Proc. FTRTFT, Oldenburg, Germany, September 9–12, 2002, pp.265–290.
Audemard G, Cimatti A, Kornilowicz A, Sebastiani R. Bounded model checking for timed systems. In Proc. FORTE, Houston, Texas, USA, November 11–14, 2002, pp.243–259.
Markey N, Schnoebelen P. Symbolic model checking for simply-timed systems. In Proc. FTRTFT, Grenoble, France, September 22–24, 2004, pp.102–117.
Sheini H M, Sakallah K A. From propositional satisfiability to satisfiability modulo theories. In Proc. SAT, Seattle, WA, USA, August 12–15, 2006, pp.1–9.
- Improved Bounded Model Checking for the Universal Fragment of CTL
Journal of Computer Science and Technology
Volume 24, Issue 1 , pp 96-109
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- software verification
- model checking algorithm
- bounded model checking
- Industry Sectors