The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 755-767

First online:

Inclusion of soil erosion impacts in life cycle assessment on a global scale: application to energy crops in Spain

  • Montserrat NúñezAffiliated withIRTA, SostenipraINRA, UR050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement Email author 
  • , Assumpció AntónAffiliated withIRTA, SostenipraDepartament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV)
  • , Pere MuñozAffiliated withIRTA, Sostenipra
  • , Joan RieradevallAffiliated withICTA, Sostenipra, Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB)Chemical Engineering Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB)

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access



Despite the fundamental role of ecosystem goods and services in sustaining human activities, there is no harmonized and internationally agreed method for including them in life cycle assessment (LCA). The main goal of this study was to develop a globally applicable and spatially resolved method for assessing land use impacts on the erosion regulation ecosystem service.


Soil erosion depends much on location. Thus, unlike conventional LCA, the endpoint method was regionalized at the grid cell level (5 arcmin, approximately 10 × 10 km2) to reflect the spatial conditions of the site. Spatially explicit characterization factors were not further aggregated at broader spatial scales.

Results and discussion

Life cycle inventory data of topsoil and topsoil organic carbon (SOC) losses were interpreted at the endpoint level in terms of the ultimate damage to soil resources and ecosystem quality. Human health damages were excluded from the assessment. The method was tested on a case study of five 3-year agricultural rotations, two of them with energy crops, grown in several locations in Spain. A large variation in soil and SOC losses was recorded in the inventory step, depending on climatic and edaphic conditions. The importance of using a spatially explicit model and characterization factors is shown in the case study.


The regionalized assessment takes into account the differences in soil erosion-related environmental impacts caused by the great variability of soils. Taking this regionalized framework as the starting point, further research should focus on testing the applicability of the method through the complete life cycle of a product and on determining an appropriate spatial scale at which to aggregate characterization factors in order to deal with data gaps on the location of processes, especially in the background system. Additional research should also focus on improving the reliability of the method by quantifying and, insofar as it is possible, reducing uncertainty.


Ecosystem services Land use impacts Regionalized life cycle impact assessment Soil organic carbon Soil loss