The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 242–251

Methodology for systematic analysis and improvement of manufacturing unit process life cycle inventory (UPLCI) CO2PE! initiative (cooperative effort on process emissions in manufacturing). Part 2: case studies

  • Karel Kellens
  • Wim Dewulf
  • Michael Overcash
  • Michael Z. Hauschild
  • Joost R. Duflou

DOI: 10.1007/s11367-011-0352-0

Cite this article as:
Kellens, K., Dewulf, W., Overcash, M. et al. Int J Life Cycle Assess (2012) 17: 242. doi:10.1007/s11367-011-0352-0



This report presents two case studies, one for both the screening approach and the in-depth approach, demonstrating the application of the life cycle assessment-oriented methodology for systematic inventory analysis of the machine tool use phase of manufacturing unit processes, which has been developed in the framework of the CO2PE! collaborative research programme (CO2PE! 2011) and is described in part 1 of this paper (Kellens et al. 2011).

Screening approach

The screening approach, which provides a first insight into the unit process and results in a set of approximate LCI data, relies on representative industrial data and engineering calculations for energy use and material loss. This approach is illustrated by means of a case study of a drilling process.

In-depth approach

The in-depth approach, which leads to more accurate LCI data as well as the identification of potential for environmental improvements of the manufacturing unit processes, is subdivided into four modules, including a time study, a power consumption study, a consumables study and an emissions study, in which all relevant process in- and outputs are measured and analysed in detail. The procedure of this approach, together with the proposed CO2PE! template, is illustrated by means of a case study of a laser cutting process.


The CO2PE! methodology aims to provide high-quality LCI data for the machine tool use phase of manufacturing unit processes, to be used in life cycle inventory databases and libraries, as well as to identify potential for environmental improvement based on the in-depth analysis of individual manufacturing unit processes. Two case studies illustrate the applicability of the methodology.


CO2PE! Drilling Energy and resource efficiency Laser cutting Unit process life cycle inventory (UPLCI) 

Supplementary material

11367_2011_352_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (56 kb)
ESM 1XLSX 55 kb
11367_2011_352_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (761 kb)
ESM 2PDF 760 kb

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karel Kellens
    • 1
  • Wim Dewulf
    • 2
  • Michael Overcash
    • 3
  • Michael Z. Hauschild
    • 4
  • Joost R. Duflou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringK.U.Leuven, Centre of Industrial ManagementLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Group T—International University College Leuven, K.U.Leuven AssociationLeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.College of EngineeringWichita State UniversityWichitaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Management EngineeringTechnical University of DenmarkLyngbyDenmark