Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 16, pp 9689–9708

Toxicity assessment through multiple endpoint bioassays in soils posing environmental risk according to regulatory screening values

  • A. Rodriguez-Ruiz
  • V. Asensio
  • B. Zaldibar
  • M. Soto
  • I. Marigómez
Research Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-2915-7

Cite this article as:
Rodriguez-Ruiz, A., Asensio, V., Zaldibar, B. et al. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2014) 21: 9689. doi:10.1007/s11356-014-2915-7

Abstract

Toxicity profiles of two soils (a brownfield in Legazpi and an abandoned iron mine in Zugaztieta; Basque Country) contaminated with several metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu in Legazpi; Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in Zugaztieta) and petroleum hydrocarbons (in Legazpi) were determined using a multi-endpoint bioassay approach. Investigated soils exceeded screening values (SVs) of regulatory policies in force (Basque Country; Europe). Acute and chronic toxicity bioassays were conducted with a selected set of test species (Vibrio fischeri, Dictyostelium discoideum, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus and Eisenia fetida) in combination with chemical analysis of soils and elutriates, as well as with bioaccumulation studies in earthworms. The sensitivity of the test species and the toxicity endpoints varied depending on the soil. It was concluded that whilst Zugaztieta soil showed very little or no toxicity, Legazpi soil was toxic according to almost all the toxicity tests (solid phase Microtox®, D. discoideum inhibition of fruiting body formation and developmental cycle solid phase assays, lettuce seed germination and root elongation test, earthworm acute toxicity and reproduction tests, D. discoideum cell viability and replication elutriate assays). Thus, albeit both soils had similar SVs, their ecotoxicological risk, and therefore the need for intervening, was different for each soil as unveiled after toxicity profiling based on multiple endpoint bioassays. Such a toxicity profiling approach is suitable to be applied for scenario-targeted soil risk assessment in those cases where applicable national/regional soil legislation based on SVs demands further toxicity assessment.

Keywords

MetalsHydrocarbonsChronic pollutionToxicity testsAvailabilityBioaccumulation

Supplementary material

11356_2014_2915_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (114 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 113 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Rodriguez-Ruiz
    • 1
  • V. Asensio
    • 1
  • B. Zaldibar
    • 1
  • M. Soto
    • 1
    • 2
  • I. Marigómez
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Ekoiz-Berrilur Consortium, CBET Res. Grp. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology Department, Science and Technology FacultyUniversity of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)Leioa-BizkaiaSpain
  2. 2.CBET Res. Grp, Res Ctr Exper Mar Biol and Biotechnol (Plentzia Marine Station)University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)Plentzia-BizkaiaSpain