Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp 5405–5415

Physiological and biochemical defense reactions of Vicia faba L.–Rhizobium symbiosis face to chronic exposure to cyanobacterial bloom extract containing microcystins

  • Majida Lahrouni
  • Khalid Oufdou
  • Fatima El Khalloufi
  • Mohamed Baz
  • Alejandro Lafuente
  • Mohammed Dary
  • Eloisa Pajuelo
  • Brahim Oudra
Research Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1535-y

Cite this article as:
Lahrouni, M., Oufdou, K., El Khalloufi, F. et al. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2013) 20: 5405. doi:10.1007/s11356-013-1535-y

Abstract

The presence of cyanotoxins, mainly microcystins (MCs), in surface freshwater represents a serious health risk to aquatic organisms living in the water body, as well as terrestrial animals and plants that are in contact with contaminated water. Consequently, the use of MCs contaminated water for irrigation represents a hazard for cultivated plants and could induce severe economical losses due to crops’ yield reduction. The experimental approach undertaken in this work was exposing Vicia faba seedlings (inoculated with a Rhizobium strain resistant to MCs), to water supplemented with cyanobacterial crude extract containing total microcystins at a concentration of 50 and 100 μg/L (environmental relevant concentrations of MCs dissolved in the raw irrigation water from Lalla Takerkoust Lake-Marrakesh region). After chronic MCs exposure (2 months), biological and physiological parameters (plant growth, nitrogen uptake, mineral assimilation, and oxidative defense mechanisms) were evaluated. The results obtained showed evidence that chronic exposure to cyanobacterial bloom extract containing MCs strongly affected the physiological and biological plants activities; reduction of dry matter, photosynthetic activity, nodule number, and nitrogen assimilation. At the same time, an increase of oxidative stress was observed, as deduced from a significant increase of the activities of peroxidase, catalase, polyphenoloxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in leaves, roots, and nodules of faba bean plants exposed to cyanotoxins, especially at 100 μg/L of MCs. This experimentation constitutes a simulation of the situation related to cyanotoxins chronic exposure of seedlings—plants via the contaminated irrigation water. For this reason, once should take into consideration the possibility of contamination of agricultural crops and the quality of irrigation water should be by the way monitored for cyanotoxins biohazard.

Keywords

Faba beanCyanotoxinsMicrocystins-LROxidative stressRhizobiaSymbiosisAntioxidant defense

Abbreviations

CAT

Catalase

Fv/Fm

Ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence–the quantum efficiency of open photosystem II centers

Fm

Maximum fluorescence

F0

Minimum fluorescence yield

HPLC-PDA

High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detector

MC

Microcystins

MC-LR

Microcystin-LR

NN

Number of nodules

NDW

Nodule dry weight

PAL

L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase

POD

Peroxidase

PPO

Polyphenoloxidase

PSII

Photosystem II

RDW

Root dry weight

RL

Root length

TPC

Total polyphenols content

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Majida Lahrouni
    • 1
  • Khalid Oufdou
    • 1
  • Fatima El Khalloufi
    • 1
  • Mohamed Baz
    • 1
  • Alejandro Lafuente
    • 2
  • Mohammed Dary
    • 2
  • Eloisa Pajuelo
    • 2
  • Brahim Oudra
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biology and Biotechnology of Microorganisms, Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology Unit, Faculty of Sciences SemlaliaCadi Ayyad UniversityMarrakechMorocco
  2. 2.Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad de SevillaSevillaSpain