Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 4980–4992

Environmental–sanitary risk analysis procedure applied to artificial turf sports fields


    • DIATI–Department of EnvironmentLand and Infrastructure Engineering
  • Silvia Fiore
    • DIATI–Department of EnvironmentLand and Infrastructure Engineering
  • Maria Chiara Zanetti
    • DIATI–Department of EnvironmentLand and Infrastructure Engineering
Research Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11356-012-1390-2

Cite this article as:
Ruffino, B., Fiore, S. & Zanetti, M.C. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2013) 20: 4980. doi:10.1007/s11356-012-1390-2


Owing to the extensive use of artificial turfs worldwide, over the past 10 years there has been much discussion about the possible health and environmental problems originating from styrene-butadiene recycled rubber. In this paper, the authors performed a Tier 2 environmental–sanitary risk analysis on five artificial turf sports fields located in the city of Turin (Italy) with the aid of RISC4 software. Two receptors (adult player and child player) and three routes of exposure (direct contact with crumb rubber, contact with rainwater soaking the rubber mat, inhalation of dusts and gases from the artificial turf fields) were considered in the conceptual model. For all the fields and for all the routes, the cumulative carcinogenic risk proved to be lower than 10−6 and the cumulative non-carcinogenic risk lower than 1. The outdoor inhalation of dusts and gases was the main route of exposure for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances. The results given by the inhalation pathway were compared with those of a risk assessment carried out on citizens breathing gases and dusts from traffic emissions every day in Turin. For both classes of substances and for both receptors, the inhalation of atmospheric dusts and gases from vehicular traffic gave risk values of one order of magnitude higher than those due to playing soccer on an artificial field.


Environmental–sanitary risk analysisArtificial turfsInhalationDermal contactRainwater leaching

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012