Review Article

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 86-99

The impact of the waterborne transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and analysis efforts for water detection: an overview and update

  • Panagiotis KaranisAffiliated withMedical and Molecular Parasitology, University Clinics of Cologne, Center of Anatomy, Institute II Email author 
  • , Hebatalla M. AldeyarbiAffiliated withMedical and Molecular Parasitology, University Clinics of Cologne, Center of Anatomy, Institute IIDepartment of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University
  • , Marzieh E. MirhashemiAffiliated withVeterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine, UCD Veterinary Sciences Centre, University College Dublin
  • , Khalil M. KhalilAffiliated withCommission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Medical Biotechnology Department, National Research Center

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

The ubiquitous protozoa Toxoplasma gondii is now the subject of renewed interest, due to the spread of oocysts via water causing waterborne outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in different parts of the world. This overview discusses the different methods for detection of Toxoplasma in drinking and environmental water. It includes a combination of conventional and molecular tools for effective oocyst recovery and detection in water sources as well as factors hindering the detection of this parasite and shedding light on a promising new molecular assay for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma in environmental samples. Hopefully, this attempt will facilitate future approaches for better recovery, concentration, and detection of Toxoplasma oocysts in environmental waters.

Keywords

Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts Waterborne toxoplasmosis