Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 86–99

The impact of the waterborne transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and analysis efforts for water detection: an overview and update

Authors

    • Medical and Molecular ParasitologyUniversity Clinics of Cologne, Center of Anatomy, Institute II
  • Hebatalla M. Aldeyarbi
    • Medical and Molecular ParasitologyUniversity Clinics of Cologne, Center of Anatomy, Institute II
    • Department of Parasitology, Faculty of MedicineSuez Canal University
  • Marzieh E. Mirhashemi
    • Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine, UCD Veterinary Sciences CentreUniversity College Dublin
  • Khalil M. Khalil
    • Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Medical Biotechnology DepartmentNational Research Center
Review Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11356-012-1177-5

Cite this article as:
Karanis, P., Aldeyarbi, H.M., Mirhashemi, M.E. et al. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2013) 20: 86. doi:10.1007/s11356-012-1177-5

Abstract

The ubiquitous protozoa Toxoplasma gondii is now the subject of renewed interest, due to the spread of oocysts via water causing waterborne outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in different parts of the world. This overview discusses the different methods for detection of Toxoplasma in drinking and environmental water. It includes a combination of conventional and molecular tools for effective oocyst recovery and detection in water sources as well as factors hindering the detection of this parasite and shedding light on a promising new molecular assay for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma in environmental samples. Hopefully, this attempt will facilitate future approaches for better recovery, concentration, and detection of Toxoplasma oocysts in environmental waters.

Keywords

Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts Waterborne toxoplasmosis

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012