Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 2305–2320

Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 195 using anatase/brookite TiO2 mesoporous nanoparticles: Optimization using response surface methodology (RSM) and kinetics studies

  • Nikolaos Tzikalos
  • Vassiliki Belessi
  • Dimitra Lambropoulou
Research Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11356-012-1106-7

Cite this article as:
Tzikalos, N., Belessi, V. & Lambropoulou, D. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2013) 20: 2305. doi:10.1007/s11356-012-1106-7


In the present study, the photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 195 (RR195) from aqueous samples under UV-A irradiation by using anatase/brookite TiO2 (A/B TiO2) mesoporous nanoparticles has been investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of the main parameters affecting the photocatalytic process. The effects and interactions of most influenced parameters, such as substrate concentration and catalyst load, were evaluated and optimized by using a central composite design model and a response surface methodology. The results indicated that the dye degradation efficiency in the experimental domain investigated was mainly affected by the tested variables, as well as their interaction effects. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination value (R2 = 0.9947), thus ensuring a satisfactory adjustment of the first-order regression model (2FI model) with the experimental data. The obtained results also indicate that catalyst loading plays an important role in determining the removal efficiency of RR195 attributable to both photodegradation and adsorption process. Under optimal conditions (initial dye concentration (50 mg/L) and catalyst loading (2,000 mg/L), A/B TiO2 showed similar removal efficiency compared to that of commercial titania (Degussa P25). Also, at these conditions, complete degradation of RR195 can be achieved by both catalysts within 15 min under UV-A irradiation. The experiments demonstrated that dye removal on the prepared A/B TiO2 was facilitated by the synergistic effects between adsorption and photocatalysis. Photocatalytic mineralization of RR195 was monitored by total organic carbon. The recycling experiments confirmed the stability of the catalyst.


Anatase Brookite Azo dyes Photocatalysis Response surface methodology 

Supplementary material

11356_2012_1106_MOESM1_ESM.doc (68 kb)
ESM 1(DOC 68.5 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikolaos Tzikalos
    • 1
  • Vassiliki Belessi
    • 2
  • Dimitra Lambropoulou
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Department of Graphic ArtsTechnological Educational Institute of AthensAigaleoGreece

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