Original Paper

Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 233-242

First online:

Software model checking without source code

  • Sagar ChakiAffiliated withSoftware Engineering Institute Email author 
  • , James IversAffiliated withSoftware Engineering Institute

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We present a framework, called air, for verifying safety properties of assembly language programs via software model checking. air extends the applicability of predicate abstraction and counterexample guided abstraction refinement to the automated verification of low-level software. By working at the assembly level, air allows verification of programs for which source code is unavailable—such as legacy and COTS software—and programs that use features—such as pointers, structures, and object-orientation—that are problematic for source-level software verification tools. In addition, air makes no assumptions about the underlying compiler technology. We have implemented a prototype of air and present encouraging results on several non-trivial examples.


Software verification Model checking Assembly programs Abstraction Iterative refinement