Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 555–561

Sleep duration and body mass index in children and adolescents with and without obstructive sleep apnea

Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11325-013-0918-0

Cite this article as:
Moraleda-Cibrián, M. & O’Brien, L.M. Sleep Breath (2014) 18: 555. doi:10.1007/s11325-013-0918-0

Abstract

Purpose

The prevalence of pediatric obesity and short sleep duration has simultaneously increased in recent decades. Sleep plays a critical role in metabolic and endocrine regulation and insufficient sleep has been shown to be associated with changes in metabolism. Obesity, a major risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), has been also associated with metabolic dysregulation. Despite this, no study investigating short sleep and obesity has addressed the potential confounder of OSA. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short sleep duration and obesity in children with and without OSA.

Methods

In this retrospective study, 306 children who underwent polysomnography between January and December 2010 were included. A diagnosis of OSA was made if the apnea/hypopnea index on polysomnography is ≥1. Typical sleep times were obtained by parental report. Short sleep duration was defined as a reduction of >1 h from the minimum total sleep time (TST) recommended for age from the National Sleep Foundation (NSF).

Results

Overall, 32 % were obese, 39.5 % had short sleep duration, and 78 % had OSA. Children with OSA had a similar frequency of short sleep duration than those without (39.6 vs. 42.4 %, p = 0.950). In children with short sleep duration, the odds ratio for obesity was 2.5 (95 % CI 1.3–4.9; p = 0.009) compared to children with TST within normal limits even after accounting for the presence of OSA.

Conclusion

A parental history of total sleep duration of only 1 h less than recommended per age by the NSF is associated with a higher risk for obesity in children independently of the presence of OSA.

Keywords

ObesityChildhoodSleep durationObstructive sleep apnea

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

CDC

Center for Disease Control and prevention

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NSF

National Sleep Foundation

OSA

Obstructive sleep apnea

PSG

Polysomnography

PSQ

Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire

SDB

Sleep-disordered breathing

TST

Total sleep time

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Moraleda-Cibrián
    • 1
    • 2
  • Louise M. O’Brien
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Sleep Disorders Center, Department of NeurologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Michael S. Aldrich Sleep Disorders LaboratoryAnn ArborUSA