Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 359–366

Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in Japanese elementary school children aged 6–8 years

Authors

    • Department of Sleep MedicineShiga University of Medical Science
    • Department of OtorhinolaryngologyUniversity of Occupational and Environmental Health
  • Soichiro Miyazaki
    • Department of Sleep MedicineShiga University of Medical Science
  • Hiroshi Kadotani
    • Center for Genomic MedicineKyoto University Graduate School of Medicine
  • Hideaki Suzuki
    • Department of OtorhinolaryngologyUniversity of Occupational and Environmental Health
  • Takashi Kanemura
    • Department of Sleep MedicineShiga University of Medical Science
  • Ichiro Komada
    • Department of OtorhinolaryngologySocial Insurance Shiga Hospital
  • Michiko Nishikawa
    • Department of OtorhinolaryngologyOhmikusatsu Tokushukai Hospital
  • Ryuichi Kobayashi
    • Sleep Disordered Breathing CenterAyagawa National Health Insurance Sue Hospital
  • Masako Okawa
    • Department of Sleep MedicineShiga University of Medical Science
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11325-013-0893-5

Cite this article as:
Kitamura, T., Miyazaki, S., Kadotani, H. et al. Sleep Breath (2014) 18: 359. doi:10.1007/s11325-013-0893-5

Abstract

Purpose

We aimed to determine the prevalence of and the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in Japanese children aged 6–8 years.

Methods

The parents of 202 children aged 6–8 years who attended a single elementary school in Shiga, Japan, were requested to complete the Child and Adolescent Sleep Checklist (CASC) and perform home Type 3 portable monitoring of their children. By using the CASC data and monitor recordings, we estimated the prevalence of pediatric OSAS with the help of different diagnostic criteria and identified the risk factors associated with OSAS.

Results

Complete data were obtained from 170 of the 194 children whose parents participated in the study. The mean total apnea–hypopnea index and obstructive apnea hypopnea index were 1.4 ± 1.3 and 0.4 ± 0.6 h−1, respectively, and central apnea was the most prevalent type of respiratory event, accounting for 70.4 % of all events. The overall prevalence of OSAS ranged from 0.6 % to 43.5 %, depending on the cutoff value used, and was 3.5 % when using International Criteria of Sleep Disorders version II (ICSD II) diagnostic criteria. The presence of tonsillar hypertrophy was the only parameter whose prevalence was significantly elevated in children with OSAS across all diagnostic criteria.

Conclusions

The prevalence of pediatric OSAS varies according to the diagnostic criteria used, indicating the need for further research focusing on outcomes to define a clinically significant diagnostic threshold. The presence of tonsillar hypertrophy is an important risk factor in the development of pediatric OSAS.

Keywords

ApneaHypopneaInternational Classification of Sleep Disorders version IIRhinomanometryTonsillar hypertrophyType 3 portable monitoring

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013